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2008-06-051 HEATING WITHOUT GLOBAL WARMING Euroheat & Power Conference, Brussels, 5 June 2008 Calculating savings from Final to Primary Energy Tomas Bruce.

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Presentation on theme: "2008-06-051 HEATING WITHOUT GLOBAL WARMING Euroheat & Power Conference, Brussels, 5 June 2008 Calculating savings from Final to Primary Energy Tomas Bruce."— Presentation transcript:

1 HEATING WITHOUT GLOBAL WARMING Euroheat & Power Conference, Brussels, 5 June 2008 Calculating savings from Final to Primary Energy Tomas Bruce President, Capital Cooling Europe Adviser to the Swedish Government on Energy Efficiency

2 HEATING WITHOUT GLOBAL WARMING Euroheat & Power Conference, Brussels, 5 June 2008 EU Energy Savings Policy: Reduction of 20 % in Primary Energy use by 2020 EU Energy Services Directive: Increased End use efficiency of ≥ 9 % by 2016 What Counts: Final or Primary use of Energy?

3 HEATING WITHOUT GLOBAL WARMING Euroheat & Power Conference, Brussels, 5 June 2008 What is Final use / End use of Energy? It is: The amount of energy supplied to and paid for by customer Based on metering at customer Important characteristics: It includes losses in customer's equipments It does not include transformation and/or distribution losses prior to customer's point of purchase

4 HEATING WITHOUT GLOBAL WARMING Euroheat & Power Conference, Brussels, 5 June 2008 What is Primary Energy? It is: “Raw” energy before exploitation for use Can be calculated based on metering at customer e.g. Oil, Coal, Natural Gas and Uranium, still in Earth's ground Growing Biomass Shining Sun, Blowing Wind, Running Water Remark: Electricity, District Heat, District Cold are secondary forms of energy – for efficient distribution

5 HEATING WITHOUT GLOBAL WARMING Euroheat & Power Conference, Brussels, 5 June 2008 Primary Energy / End use of Energy / Net Energy An illustration

6 HEATING WITHOUT GLOBAL WARMING Euroheat & Power Conference, Brussels, 5 June 2008 Real energy savings can only be correctly evaluated by analysing the Primary Energy demand! The tool to use is Primary Energy Factors (PEFs) Multiply customer's metered values by relevant PEF to receive the actual use of Primary Energy

7 HEATING WITHOUT GLOBAL WARMING Euroheat & Power Conference, Brussels, 5 June 2008 Some examples of possible PEFs  Oil, Coal, Natural Gas 1,0 (1,2 at burner)  Biomass 1,0 (1,2 at burner) – though CO2 positive  Hydro 1,0 (limited resource) – though CO2 positive  Wind / Solar 0 (abundant resource) – CO2 positive  Cold sea water for cooling 0  Waste heat from power stations and industries 0  Electricity from condensing (fossil) power 2,5  Electricity from nuclear power 3,0  Electricity from grid – depends on sources  District heat – depends on sources, mostly ≤ 1,0  District cold – depends on sources, often ≤ 0,5  Electricity / DHC – average or marginal PEF?

8 HEATING WITHOUT GLOBAL WARMING Euroheat & Power Conference, Brussels, 5 June 2008 Some examples of how different measures affect Primary Energy (PE), End use Energy (EUE) and Net Energy (NE) Measure PE EUE NE___ El. heat → heat pump: major decrease major decrease no difference Oil heat→ district heat: decrease slight decrease no difference El. heat → district heat: major decrease no difference no difference Oil heat → el. heat: major increase decrease no difference Improved climate shell: decrease decrease decrease Fossil cars→ el. cars: decrease major decrease no difference

9 HEATING WITHOUT GLOBAL WARMING Euroheat & Power Conference, Brussels, 5 June 2008 Conclusions: The amount of energy measured at customer's point of purchase does not tell very much about the real demand on Earth's primary energy resources. Most of today's primary energy resources have limited availability. Many of today's primary energy resources will contribute negatively to climate change. We must change our society to greater energy efficiency as well as to the increased use of free energies and secondary energies that otherwise would have been wasted.

10 HEATING WITHOUT GLOBAL WARMING Euroheat & Power Conference, Brussels, 5 June 2008 Thank You!


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