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SEMINARIO ENEA - CASACCIA Venerdì 12 marzo 2010 ore 10 Carlo Artioli Multi-physics parameters optimization of ADS core for transmutation

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Int’l Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy New Delhi, Sept 29-Oct 1 / ENEA-BO 12 Nov 009 Carlo Artioli Multi-physics parameters optimization of ADS core for transmutation IP-EUROTRANS International training course (ITC-9) on Accelerator–driven Transmutation System for European and Asian Young Scientists and Engineers Nuclear Technology and Education Center JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Dec. 1-4, 2009 Carlo Artioli IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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SIXTH FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME EURATOM Management of Radioactive Waste IP EUROTRANS EUROpean Reserch Programme for the TRANSmutation of high Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) DM0DM1 … DM5 ManagementDesignNudatra WP1.1 WP1.2….. WP1.6 Reference Design Development and Assesment XT-ADS Remote Specifications of XT-ADS and EFIT Designs Handling Catalogue U-free Core design of the EFIT-Pb and of the Gas backup option Task ….. Task …. Task (ENEA, FZK, Ansaldo, CEA, Framatome ANP, NNC, CRS4) IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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EFIT Pb Main features EFIT Pb Main features Goal:fissioning MA, while producing energy Fuel:MA & Pu Oxide in inert matrix (MgO) Coolant:Lead, Tin=400 °C, Tout=480°C Power:several hundreds MW EUROTRANS DM1 Task 1.2.4: EFIT Core Design (European Facility for Industrial Transmutation,) VI FP, IP EUROTRANS concept developed for the transmutation of MAs IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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Kmax =0.97 High amount of MA allowed in the core IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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Main questions to be answered 2) In which way the burning capability has to be optimized? 3) What about the two goals: “burner” and “energy producer”? (should they be contradictory) 1)What exactly means “burning MA at best” ? IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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Core size (MW) M A b a l a n c e K g ( M A ) / T W h 1)What exactly means “burning MA at best” ? (e.g.400) (e.g.65) E u r o / K g ( M A t r a n s m u t e d ) IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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Power density roughly invariant Power size become geometrical size Core size (MW) MA balance Kg (MA) /TWh Lattice ruled by linear power rating and TH constraint 1)What exactly means “burning MA at best” ? IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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Core size (MW) MA balance Kg (MA) /TWh 1)What exactly means “burning MA at best” ? fuel Pu MA Pu MA Pu MA IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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Pu MA Pu MA Transmutation fission Small size, high enrichment Large size, low enrichment Small size = low MA reaction rate Large size = high MA reaction rate IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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e = Pu / (Pu+ MA) Pu MAFUEL Pu mass Balance MA mass balance Pu breeder Pu burner Kg/TWh Ex. - 60, +18 Ex. - 30, -12 Total balance ≈ - 42 kg / Twh th (from theor. 210 MeV/fission) e = Pu / (Pu+ MA) Pu MA FUEL Fission product Transmutations IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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A MA balance lower than -42 kg/TWh (e.g. -50) means that: - 42 have been actually fissioned and - the difference (e.g. 8) have been transmuted in new Pu A MA balance higher than -42 kg/TWh, e.g. -35, means that: - 35 have been actually fissioned and - the difference (e.g. 7) are fissions of Pu 1)What exactly means “burning MA at best” ? the system would act as Pu breeder the system would act as Pu burner IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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In both the cases: -Producing new Pu and -Burning Pu the system has not been optimized because there are “expensive” neutrons used not to fission MA. 1)What exactly means “burning MA at best” ? (Producing or fissioning Pu can be made in cheaper way in conventional reactor) The best ADS, as MA burner, shows a: - MA balance of -42 kg/TWh and (of course) - Pu balance of 0 kg/TWh IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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or considering the velocity of burning -42kg/h / TW the minimum cost of the power deployed 2) In which way the burning capability has to be optimized? 3) What about the to goals: “burner” and “energy producer”? (should they be contradictory) The best ADS, as MA burner, shows a: - MA balance of -42 kg/TWh and (of course) - Pu balance of 0 kg/TWh Since looking for a MA performance “better” than -42 kg/TWh is meaningless, the optimization leads to the minimum cost of the TWh which is the same optimization required for the energy production IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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How to get the : - MA balance of -42 kg/TWh and (of course) - Pu balance of 0 kg/TWh Pu MA Pu mass Balance MA mass balance Pu breeder Pu burner Kg/TWh Ex. - 60, +18 Ex. - 30, -12 Suitable e = Pu / (Pu+ MA) The burning performance depends on the mutual ratio between Pu and MA i.e. on the enrichment X kg/TWh of net Transmutations 42-X kg/TWh fissioned X kg/TWh fissioned FP, 42 kg/TWh IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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k swing INPUT to be supplied OUTPUT Pu and MA vectors Search of suited Pu/ (Pu+MA) Pellet composition Pu, MA dioxyde stechiometry and density; Matrix, density and fraction Definition of “enrich.” Pu/ (Pu+MA) Pin geometry definition ( diameter and other by guess ) Gas releases = f (T, BU) Fuel element definition Max linear power, TH (T max, conductivity law) Fuel density power Core density power K eff required Core definition Core size and power Verification and optimization Main statement: DESIGN IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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Which are the correlationships among the main core parameters (A-BAQUS graph) Matrix rate Current Power/size Performances Enrichment k cycle IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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fuel Pu MA e = Pu / (Pu+ MA) Inert matrixPELLET %MgO = Matrix / (Matrix + fuel) MgO e (%) 50 %MgO 50 ( %fuel ) Which are the correlationships among the main core parameters IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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e (%) e = Pu / (Pu+ MA) %MgO Pu MA Fission product Total balance 42 kg / Twhth Transmutations 50 FUEL ( %fuel ) Pu mass Balance MA mass balance Pu breeder Pu burner Kg/TWh Ex. - 60, +18 Ex. - 30, -12 Which are the correlationships among the main core parameters IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli Approximation: No effect on the spectrum of the variation of the matrix fraction (in the range)

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e (%) %MgO Pu mass Balance MA mass balance Pu breeder Pu burner Kg/TWh Pu MA K swing (pcm/y) Fission Transmutations k (pcm/y) 0 FUEL 50 e = Pu / (Pu+ MA) ( %fuel ) Which are the correlationships among the main core parameters IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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e (%) %MgO Homog. Power density rather constant 50 ( %fuel ) Coolant volume fraction (depending on coolant velocity) Linear power rating (depending on the fuel) Which are the correlationships among the main core parameters IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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Homog. Power density rather constant IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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e (%) %MgO Homog. Power density rather constant decreasing %fuel (incr. %MgO) Increases the geometrical size (to adjust for criticallity) Increases the Core Power P (MW) Core Radius (cm) ( %fuel ) Coolant volume fraction (depending on coolant velocity) Linear power rating (depending on the fuel) Which are the correlationships among the main core parameters IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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Core Power Proton current k swing Proton current range P (MW) Core Radius (cm) Subcriticality fixed! Enrichment constant I (mA) Which are the correlationships among the main core parameters IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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Which are the correlationships among the main core parameters IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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EFIT-Pb Technology constraints Fuel CERCER (Pu,MA)O 2-x -MgO inert matrix (or 92 Mo, 93%enriched) % VF of MgO>50% (to assure thermal conductivity); Linear power < W/cm (depending on %VF MgO). - FA residence time = 3 years (Pb corrosion is the most restricting condition) T limit for the fuel: ~ 1650 K (500 K below the inert matrix melting/disintegration) T limit for the cladding at nominal cond. (9Cr1MoVNb steel T91): 820 K Pb speed at 1 m/s (to limit corrosion effects) Active height = 90 cm (to limit the pressure drop) IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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Maintain a low k eff swing during the cycle (no oversize of target and accelerator) Maximize the power density Decrease the form factors to flatten the coolant T out (Pb at 750 K and <820 K for the cladding) and to maximize the avg power density by use of 3-zones with increasing active fuel volume fraction along the core radius (enr. Is fixed): from inner to intermediate zone by increasing the fuel/matrix from 43% to 50% (but same pin diameter) from intermediate to outer zone by increasing the pin diameter (and same fuel/matrix %), FA dimensions are driven by the size of the spallation module, R target = 43.7 cm (to replace 19 FAs) Design choices, rationales and solutions Maximize MA fission. The enrichment is fixed to fulfil the “42-0” approach, i.e.: 1.42 kg/TWh th is true for any nuclear system (it comes from 210 MeV/fission) 2.what is the policy about Pu? The choice here is neither Pu production (not consistent with U-free) nor Pu reduction (net fission expensive in ADS) 3.the choice is then to dedicate all the fissions (directly or indirectly) to MAs: net balance is -42 kg/TWh th for MA and 0 kg/TWh th for Pu (which sustains in any case the reactivity, acting as a catalizer) IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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Project parameters (as inputs) – Thermal power of some hundreds of MW (to be optimized) – Pb coolant for the proton target and the core (fast spectrum). Pb temp. for the core: T in =673 K, T out =753 K – External proton beam of 800 MeV up to 20 mA (windowless target) – Sub-critical level of k eff = 0.97 (to be verified a posteriori) – The fuel is U-free and uses Pu and MA vectors. MA come from the spent UO 2 (90%) and MOX fuel (10%) of a PWR (45 MWd/kgHM) with 30 cooling years. Pu from UO 2 with 15 cooling years (data from CEA). IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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B: pellet with different fractions of matrix, T out A: reduction of coolant volume fraction (larger pin) Radial flattening by increasing fuel volume fraction T outmax Coolant volume fraction Increasing fuel volume fraction Outer zone , DP P lin T out IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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Flattening Techniques StructuralC o o l a n t F u e l Pu+MA Matrix StructuralC o o l a n t F u e l Pu+MA Matrix Reference Intermediate zone Outer zone by different pin size and same matrix % Inner zone by different matrix% and same pin PD fuel =max; P lin =max; T out =max Pin “size” to obtain the same max PD but Tout should be unacceptable StructuralC o o l a n t F u e l Pu+MA Matrix PD fuel =max; P lin =max; T out =max PD fuel < max; P lin < max; T out =max IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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Inner, Intermediate & Outer FA Design Inner and Intermediate : Outer: Same pin & pitch; MgO VF (57%, 50%) > Pin - Same MgO VF (50%) IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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Cylindrised vertical section & H3D model 384 MWth core IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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Hom. Power density at midplane Maximum allowed, corresponding to linear power rating 207 and 180 W/cm (calculations: M. Sarotto) IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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BOC Monte Carlo Calculations (calculations Carlo Petrovich) k eff Neutron source (S) (neutrons/proton) 0.08 M = all fission neutrons / S 0.25 k S = M / (M+1) Proton current13.2 mA To be considered in optimization step: reducing the core/spallation size the efficiency will be increased IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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Pu / Pu (BOC) -0,7% MA / MA (BOC) -13,9% 3 years BU = 78,28 MWd / kg (HM) BU -40,17 kg (MA) / TWh Total E = 10,0915 TWh th -1,74 kg (Pu) / TWh MA and Pu balances IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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Pu, MA vectors evolutions Pu / Pu (BOC) -0,7% MA / MA (BOC) -13,9% 3 years BU = 78,28 MWd / kg (HM) BU -40,17 kg (MA) / TWh Total E = 10,0915 TWh th -1,74 kg (Pu) / TWh MA and Pu balances The Pu and MA vectors evolve in the time toward equilibrium configurations; this implies: - Calculation of the enrichment with the equilibrium vectors - Enrichment resettings in the transitory phase IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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Power size optimization criterion: minimum cost / kg of fissioned Minor Actinides minimum cost per MW deployed. cost / MW deployed = f (core size, accelerator size) - Core term:decreases increasing the power (if power density is const.); - Accelerator term: decreases increasing the power, but the target loses efficiency. Present criterion: The largest size core acceptable within the current spallation module design (max power: 11.2 MW). IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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3 approaches Starting M a i n p a r a m e t e r s Performancies point ( kg/TWh) (- 42 TRU) Kzero reactivity swing ≈ 0 e k cycle P(MW) i (800 MeV) (%) (pcm) (MW) (mA) 400MW P = 400 MW 42-0 Pu ≈ 0 IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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3 different approaches Graphical extimations IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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3 approaches Starting M a i n p a r a m e t e r s Performancies point ( kg/TWh) (- 42 TRU) Kzero reactivity 50 ~0 275 ~ 7~ -36 MA swing ≈ 0 ~ -6 Pu e k cycle P(MW) i (800 MeV) (%) (pcm) (MW) (mA) 400MW P = 400 MW 27 ~ ~ ~ - 65 MA ~ +23 Pu 42-0 Pu ≈ ~ ~ ~ - 41 MA ~ -1 Pu IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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“42-0 Concept” Main conclusions -Conceptual “42-0” design leads to the best MA burner in the sense that each fission is devoted to an “atom” of MA, no matter the kind of ADS -The doubble goal, to be a burner and a producer of energy, are not in conflict -Both can be reached minimizing the cost of the unit of energy produced in the “42-0” concept IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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“EFIT-Pb” Conclusions The “42-0” strategy has been the fundamental approach for the neutronic design of the EFIT core. Simultaneously a low k eff swing is obtained (small current excursion). MA fission (about 120 kg/year) via an U-free lead-cooled ADS as EFIT (384 MW th ) is viable, as the core is concerned: acceptable max T for fuel and cladding in nominal conditions and transients. The safety analysis (including sub-criticality level choice) has anyway to be completed. Use of CERMET fuel (Mo matrix instead of MgO), qualification of fuel, steel in Pb environment, cost/benefits ratio are to be investigated. IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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Multi-physics parameters optimization of ADS core for transmutation IP-EUROTRANS International training course (ITC-9) on Accelerator–driven Transmutation System for European and Asian Young Scientists and Engineers Nuclear Technology and Education Center JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Dec. 1-4, 2009 Carlo Artioli IP-EUROTRANS International Training Course (ITC-9) Dec. 1-4, 2009 JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Carlo Artioli

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