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Development of RF Undulator- Based Insertion Devices for Storage Rings and Free Electron lasers Sami Tantawi, Jeff Neilson, Robert Hettel, Gordon Bowden

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Outline Background Motivation Approach Work Plan

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Undulators Transverse acceleration of relativistic electron beam produces synchrotron radiation Usually constructed from static periodic magnets Main undulator parameters are the period and K – K typically 2 to 3 for static undulators – Typical λu for existing static undulators few cm

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RF Undulator Background Only one referenced construction of undulator Shintake* (1983) All practical designs to date produce too low of K value to be of much interest RF limitations – Excessive field level/loss on metallic surfaces – Power levels exceeding available sources *T. Shintake,K.Huke, J. Tanaka,I. Sato and I. Kumabe,”Development of Microwave Undulator”, Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, May 1983

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Why RF Undulator? Many desirable features – Fast dynamic control of Polarization Wavelength K – Large aperture (cm vs mm for static undulator) – No issue with permanent magnet damage by radiation – Economic considerations – Potential use as LCLS “After Burner” – Dynamic undulator for storage ring

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4/30/2015Page 6 Available Resource - NLCTA 3 x RF stations – 2 x pulse compressors (240ns - 300MW max), driven each by 2 x 50MW X-band klystrons – 1 x pulse compressors (400ns – 300MW /200ns – 500MW variable), driven by 2 x 50MW X-band klystrons. 1 x Injector: 65MeV, ~0.3 nC / bunch *In the accelerator housing: –2 x 2.5m slots for structures *Shielding Enclosure: suitable up to 1 GeV *For operation: –Can run 24/7 using automated controls (Gain = 3.1)

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TW RF Undulator in Circular Guide Research initiated by Claudio Pellegrini* at UCLA Undulator K parameter of 1 requires > 1 GW K = 0.5 of some interest – power level achievable 250 MW – surface fields (80 MV/m) would limit pulse length to < 200 ns Substantial enhancement of K parameter can be obtained with resonant structures TE 11 Mode at GHz for K=1 *S. Tantawi, V. Dolgashev, C.Nantista, C.Pellegrini,J.Rosenweig, G. Travish,” A Coherent Compton Backscattering High Gain Fel Using An X-band Microwave Undulator”,Proc. of 27intl FEL Conf, Aug 2005

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Circular waveguide mode TE 11 Fundamental mode, easily excitable Has very strong RF field on the axis where the electron bunch travels Not the least lossy mode Electric field over waveguide cross-section

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Effect of Power losses

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Because the e-beam and the em wave are traveling in opposite directions one can tailor the rf pulse to compensate for errors in the waveguide and also to taper the undulator field e-e- RF Time RF Power Waveguide Undulator

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Waveguide High Gradient Study Maximum breakdown electric fields for different geometries and materials Low magnetic field High magnetic field Gold Copper Stainless steel Initial Design point K~0.4 K~1

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Waveguide Types Rectangular (Square) – Supports TE and TM modes – High Attenuation – Hard to build Circular – Supports TE and TM modes – Lower Attenuation – easier to build (I think) but hard to taper Open Rectangular – Supports TM modes – High Attenuation – Easier to build and taper Traditional ridge waveguides etc., will not work because of surface peak fields

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TE 12 in circular guide(E field Lines) E Field along the x-axis E Field Along The waveguide surface E Field along the x-axis E Field Along The waveguide surface sTE 12 in elliptical guide(E field Lines) The use of Higher order modes not only reduces needed power but also reduces surface fields.

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Hz along the surface cTE 12 mode E Field along the x-axis E Field Along The waveguide surface Angle (degrees)

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Power from the dual Moded SLED-II pulse compressor (500 MW) Open Elliptical Waveguide undulator Low Loss Overmoded waveguide Mode Launcher Because of the integration of RF pulses in a resonant ring the rf pulse in the undulator can be smoothed. Further, the ring can have a multiplication factor of more than 10, resulting in 5 GW of RF power through the undulator waveguide.

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Spherical Cavity E H TM 113

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Cavity Parameters for an Equivalent of 1 T Peak Field at GHz TE011 –Diamter :1.477” (3.753 cm) –Power: 2.67 MW –Maximum H on Surface: 0.26MA/m (0.320 T) –Maximum E on surface: 0 MV/m

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Cavity Parameters for an Equivalent of 1 T Peak Field at GHz TM112 – Diamter : ” (5.109 cm) – Power: 2.98 MW – Maximum H on Surface: 0.197MA/m (0.248 T) – Maximum E on surface: MV/m

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The Perl String Undulator Even with optimized diamter and operating frequency, For a waveguide resonators, the end is a problem. Its losses dominates Also We need to reduce the average power for a near CW undulator operation. (However, it could be done as superconducting device) Spherical cavities offer about 35% increase in Q factor over circular cylindrical ones. Also highly overmoded spherical cavities can have a very low surface fields in comparison with the center field.

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S-band Undultor Characteristics K~1 Average power for 1% duty cycle 13 kW Mode TM111

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Resonant Waveguide Undulator Cutoff taper L u =1-2 m Instead of increasing the field by operating close to the cutoff frequency of the waveguide undulator one creates a resonant Line Tuning the radiation wavelength is done through tuning K between 0.5 to 1 for example: Undulator frequency= GHz Mode: TE 11 Waveguide Radius=3.22 cm Radiation spectrum from 705 eV -940eV (K~ 0.5-1) K=11.1 MW (two feeds for two polarizations) The circulating power within the undulator ~569 MW With the use of nonstandard frequency (~1.905 GHz) one can reduce the power/feed to about 5 MW. This is done by using TE12 mode and choosing the diameter of the waveguide such that the line losses is much smaller than the end losses

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Resonant RF Undulator in Circular Guide Resonant structures reduce required power by order of magnitude Power requirements reduced further by use of higher order modes Power MW/m TE 11 Mode at GHz for K=1 TE 12 Mode at GHz for K=1

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Filling time Higher-order modes require more stored energy, hence longer filling times Same issue applies to other overmoded structures that have been proposed TE 11 Mode at GHz for K=1 TE 12 Mode at GHz for K=1

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HE 11 Mode in Corrugated Guide Inspired by our work on a previous LDRD project which involved corrugated feed horns for CMB applications Lowest order mode (HE 11 ) is a combination of primarily TE 11 and TM 11 modes Magnetic field is extremely low on waveguide walls – attenuation can be less than that of smooth wall cylindrical TE 01 mode Field configuration ideal for beam interaction P 2 a2 b P ~ λ/2 b –a ≈ λ/4

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Power and Fill Time for HE 11 Mode Power requirements reduced substantially Fill time large but sources available for required power levels K of 2 or higher is achievable for existing sources Longer undulator wavelengths are easier as frequency and losses decrease Power MW/m HE 11 Mode at GHz for K=1

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Superconducting RF Undulator Surface magnetic field is less than the quenching field of niobium Allows application of RF undulator to storage ring applications, where CW or quasi-CW operation are required RF power needed is only few hundred watts to kilo watts – sources readily available HE 11 Mode at GHz for K=1

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Comparison of Existing SPEAR3 Static Undulator to RF Undulator Designs EPUTE11TE12HE11 Photon Flux Ratio10.2 K RF Power Loss (MW/m) RF Frequency Guide Radius (cm) RF undulator design produces 1/5 of flux of existing EPU in SPEAR3 Superconducting version would only require 10s of watts

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Hybrid Mode Optimization( Undulator wavelength ~1.3 cm)

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Energy/pulse produced by one SLAC X-band Klystrons At the beginning of this talk we showed that the straight forward fundamental mode in a waveguide required 4 klystrons and a very advanced pulse compression system to produce an undulator with a factor of 0.4! Hybrid Mode Optimization( Undulator wavelength ~1.3 cm)

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Hybrid Mode Fields Electric Field Magnetic Field Radial Field Axial Field Azimuthal Field Axial Field

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Resonant Ring Configuration A closed ring with length nλg Tune by adjusting ring length Considerable development for relevant components (miter bend, couplers) has been done (ITER transmission lines) Particle Beam RF Input Power Undulator Light RF Corrugated Waveguide Miter Bend Coupler Load

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Future Work Prototype design – Refine corrugated waveguide parameters for optimal performance – Beam impedance calculations – Resonant ring / resonator design RF feed Particle beam port Low power testing of critical components Construction and test of undulator – HOM damping design as necessary for storage ring applications – Mechanical design – Construct and test at NLCTA – If successful apply for more funds for testing either with LCLS or SSRL

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Test at NLCTA Injector Parameters – 50 MeV beam energy – 200 A peak current – Normalized emittance 2mm mrad?? – Relative energy spread 5 X RF system – GHz – Peak power 600 MW at 400 ns or 150 MW 1.5 us Accelerator – Up to 120 MeV

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Conclusions Use of HE 11 mode provides key to first practical application of RF undulators Successful development will enable design of undulators with capabilities not possible with current static undulators Could lead to a new class of FEL and storage ring undulators

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