Hovalwerk AG 01.09.2002 1 Gas Condensing Technology H2OH2O Director - Marketing und Development Heating Technology Division Markus Telian.

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Hovalwerk AG 01.09.2002 1 Gas Condensing Technology H2OH2O Director - Marketing und Development Heating Technology Division Markus Telian

Hovalwerk AG 01.09.2002 2 Gas Condensing Technology  Physical basics  Combustion  Efficiency  State of the art in boiler technology Content

Hovalwerk AG 01.09.2002 3 Gas Condensing Technology HCCCCCCCCCCH HHHHHHHHHH HHHHHHHHHH H H C C C C C C C C H H C C C C C C C C C C C C CC CC H HH H HH HH CH H H H CCC HHH HH HHH HCCCC HHHH H HHHH coal Coronen H:C = 0.5 : 1 oil Decan H:C = 2 : 1 Natural gas Methan H:C = 4 : 1 Propane C 3 H 6 Butane C 4 H 8 Energy sources and their carbon / hydrogen ratio

Hovalwerk AG 01.09.2002 4 Gas Condensing Technology natural gas oil coal wood lignite 0.400.360.33 0.260.20 in kg CO 2 / kWh fuel input CO 2 -formation of different energy sources

Hovalwerk AG 01.09.2002 5 Gas Condensing Technology CO 2 - production by comparison old or new 0,40 0,31 0,29 0,22 0,18 100% old combustion engineering 48% optimized combustion engineering old Oil  ges = 0.65 old N.Gas  ges = 0.65 new N.Gas  ges = 0.90 new Gas Condensing  ges = 1.09 new Oil  ges = 0.90... in kg CO 2 / kWh useful energy 0,25 new Oil Condensing  ges = 1.04

Hovalwerk AG 01.09.2002 6 Gas Condensing Technology Fuels Physical basics for condensation firing fuel oil or gas Gross calorific value(H o ) net calorific value (H u ) theoretical condensing power generation accrual condensing water power generation (H o -H u ) theoretical accrual condensing water steam dew point at Lambda 1.2 acidity - pH-value 12.56 kWh/kg 11.80 kWh/kg 0.76 kWh/kg 1,3 kg HEL 47°C ~ 2 - 4 11.14 kWh/m 3 10.06 kWh/m 3 1.08 kWh/m 3 1.6 m 3 / Erdgas H 56°C ~3 - 5 Fuel Oil Natural Gas

Hovalwerk AG 01.09.2002 7 Gas Condensing Technology Schematic representation Chemical reactions: C OO = CO 2 (carbon dioxid) HH O = H 2 O (water vapour) gas CH 4 C H H H H OO S = SO 2 (sulphur dioxid) CO 2 + 2H 2 O After the combustion Combustion of 1m 3 natural gas

Hovalwerk AG 01.09.2002 8 Gas Condensing Technology Wherein lie the most important savings of energy? a) Lowering the flue gas temperature Conventional boiler: flue gas temperature 140 °C up to 190 °C Condensing boiler: flue gas temperature 5 K up to 20 K above return temp. approxmimate value: Reduction of the flue gas temperature by 20K gives an increase of the efficiency of 1%. b) Condensation fo the water steam in the flue gas (latent heat: 0.66 kWh/kg condensate)

Hovalwerk AG 01.09.2002 9 Gas Condensing Technology (H u ) H 2 O "vaporous" (H o ) H 2 O „fluid" Gained quantity of heat at full combustion 2.) 1.) net & gross calorific value 1.11 1.09 1.08 1.06 1.06 10.06 kWh/m 3 25.88 kWh/m 3 34.32 kWh/m 3 11.80 kWh/kg 10.08 kWh/l 11.14 kWh/m 3 28.11 kWh/m 3 37.17 kWh/m 3 12.56 kWh/kg 10.68 kWh/l Natural Gas H* PROPANE BUTANE HEIZÖL EL** HEIZÖL EL gross (H o )net (H u ) relation H o / H u fuels 2) Referred efficiency determination on Hu (100 %) * russian natural gas ** Specifikation ÖMV "Futura" 1) the larger the difference between gross and net calorific value the larger the energy gain! Influence and characteristics gross calorific value net calorific value

Hovalwerk AG 01.09.2002 10 Gas Condensing Technology Return Flow Condensate Drain Flue Gas Fuel and Combustion Air 1200 - 1600 °C First part of the heat exchanger Second part of the heat exchanger 120 - 180 °C ~ 40 °C < 35 °C Burner Design: Atmospheric Burner, Premix Burner, Pressure Jet Burner Schematic picture of a condensing boiler Temperatures are examples!

Hovalwerk AG 01.09.2002 11 Gas Condensing Technology Boiler Shell Dew point Flue Gas 52 - 57 °C Boiler WaterFlue Gas Combustion CO 2 Fuel Dew Pointspecific amount of condensation Theor. max. CO 2 -Content *) Natural Gas ~ 56°C ~ 52°C ~ 51°C ~ 47°C 0.16 kg/kWh 0.12 kg/kWh 0.09 kg/kWh 11.8 % 13.7 % 14.1 % 15.3 % PROPANE BUTANE Fuel Oil EL *) ÖNORM M7510,T2

Hovalwerk AG 01.09.2002 12 Gas Condensing Technology 60 50 40 30 20 10 4 6 8 12 14 16 Dew point °C CO 2 -Content Vol.-% 0 5 6 789 1011 12 1314 15 161718 19 20 Water Contnet (Vol.-%) Natural Gas Net CV = 10,04 kWh/m 3 CO 2max = 12,0 % Cole Net CV = 7,91 kWh/kg CO 2max = 20,6 % FuelOil EL Net CV = 11,86 kWh/kg CO 2max = 15,3 % Dew point in dependence of the fuel and the CO 2 -content

Hovalwerk AG 01.09.2002 13 Gas Condensing Technology Efficiency % Amount of Condesate g/kWh 20305040 60 0 30 60 90 120 10 20 40 50 70 80 100 110 Return Temperature °C air ratio 1.1 natural gas H 95 110 105 100 90 1 Efficiency Condensate 3.... Depends on the temperature difference in the boiler shell 2 Amount of condensate and efficiency in dependence of the return temperature Condensate in real (Theory = 100%):  ~70-75 %  ~60-65 %  ~45-50 % natural gas

Hovalwerk AG 01.09.2002 14 Gas Condensing Technology UltraGas ®  efficiency -comparison (  ) Available heat 90 % gross 100 % net 93 % net 87 % gross 91 %net 85 % gross Radiation losses Not used condensation heat Fluegas losses 100 % gross 111 % net 109 % net 98 % gross 108 % net 97 % gross Low temperature-boilerCondensing boiler-gasCondensing boiler-oil 100 %gross 106 % net 104 % net 98 % gross 103 % net 97 % gross gross (GCV) net (LCV ) Radiation losses Fluegas losses Not used condensation heat Not used condensation heat gross (GCV) net (LCV ) Available heat

Hovalwerk AG 01.09.2002 15 Gas Condensing Technology UltraGas ® efficiency comparison (  ) acc. to DIN 4702 - 8 75 / 60 °C 40 / 30 °C LT-boilerCondensing boiler 86 % (gross) 95 % (net) 95 % (gross) 105 %(net) 98 % (gross) 109 % (net) è The efficiency calculated according to DIN 4702 - 8 is an objective and comparable figure for boilers (heating mode)

Hovalwerk AG 01.09.2002 16 Gas Condensing Technology  A single pass, natural gas down fired, firetube boiler.  Fully condensing capable, hot water boiler.  boiler sizes with capacity range of 50kW through 650kW single and from 250kW to 1300kW as double unit available. UltraGas ® State of the art in boiler technology

Hovalwerk AG 01.09.2002 17 Gas Condensing Technology General plan of types modulating ratio power range at 40/30°C UltraGas ® (50)13 - 52 kW UltraGas ® (60)13 - 62 kW UltraGas ® (80)21 - 82 kW UltraGas ® (100)21 - 101 kW UltraGas ® (125)25 - 125 kW UltraGas ® (150)32 - 150 kW UltraGas ® (200)44 - 202 kW UltraGas ® (250)49 - 250 kW UltraGas ® (300)55 - 300 kW UltraGas ® (350)55 - 350 kW UltraGas ® (400) 99 - 400 kW UltraGas ® (450) 99 - 450 kW UltraGas ® (500) 99 - 500 kW UltraGas ® (650) 94 - 650 kW

Hovalwerk AG 01.09.2002 18 Gas Condensing Technology General plan of types modulating ratio power range at 40/30°C UltraGas ® (250D) 25 - 246 kW UltraGas ® (300D) 32 - 300 kW UltraGas ® (400D) 44 - 404 kW UltraGas ® (500D) 49 - 500 kW UltraGas ® (600D) 55 - 600 kW UltraGas ® (700D) 55 - 700 kW UltraGas ® (800D) 99 - 800 kW UltraGas ® (900D) 99 - 900 kW UltraGas ® (1000D) 99 - 1000 kW UltraGas ® (1300D) 94 - 1300 kW

Hovalwerk AG 01.09.2002 19 Gas Condensing Technology Optimised stratification, a counter flow heat exchanger design to provide optimal heat transfer Heavy Polymer flue gas collection box prevents acidic corrosion. Design

Hovalwerk AG 01.09.2002 20 Gas Condensing Technology  The extended heating surface design provides the ideal solutionfor the demands of a condensing boiler and helps to recover virtually all the latent heat of the flue gas.  The tube consists of an outer stainless steel 1.4571 (316 Ti) tube (waterside) and an aluminium profile on the flue gas side.  The Clearfire is also qualified for the use of inhibitors. I.e. used in heating systems with oxygen diffusion. aluFer ®

Hovalwerk AG 01.09.2002 21 Gas Condensing Technology  Aluminium has a ten times higher heat conductivity compared to stainless steel.  The complex aluminium profile with fins and micro structures produce a huge heat transfer surface.  The micro structure causes a complex turbulent flow pattern and intensities the heat transfer.  The vertical position of the tubes enables a self-cleaning effect. A reduction in efficiency due to deposits on the surface is avoided.  each aluFer ® tube is divided into eight flow channels.  As a result, turbulent flue gas flow is created and a hot core stream is avoided aluFer ®

Hovalwerk AG 01.09.2002 22 Gas Condensing Technology  extremely clean combustion  turn down ratio 1 : 6.5  low noise  minimum electrical power consumption Ultraclean ® - burner system

Hovalwerk AG 01.09.2002 23 Gas Condensing Technology schematic diagram Gas valve Air Gas Fan Burner Venturi p Ignition Ultraclean ®

Hovalwerk AG 01.09.2002 24 Gas Condensing Technology  The Clearfire ® -premix burner is made of a high temperature resistant Fecralloy metal fibre  almost flameless combustion of the homogeneous gas / air mixture.  The solid body radiation of the burner surface cools the flame and enables extremely low emissions.  The flexible metal fabric prevents thermal stresses, resulting in a long lifetime of the Ultraclean ® -premix burner.  Ultra Low NOx Performance Ultraclean ®

Hovalwerk AG 01.09.2002 25 Gas Condensing Technology UltraGas ® (300,350,600D,700D) emissions NO X and CO in relation to the burner load (dry, 3 % O 2 ) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0102030405060708090100 burner load [%] NO x / CO in [mg/m] 3 NO(x) UltraGas ® (300,350,600D,700D)CO UltraGas ® (300,350,600D,700D)

Hovalwerk AG 01.09.2002 26 Gas Condensing Technology Summary Condensation Maximum efficiency Saves money Less primary energy used Less CO 2 (approx 42%) Protects the Environment

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