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1 Training Session on Energy Equipment Fuels & Combustion Presentation from the “Energy Efficiency Guide for Industry in Asia” © UNEP 2006 Thermal Systems/Fuels
2 © UNEP 2006 Training Agenda: Fuels & Combustion Introduction Type of fuels Performance evaluation Energy efficiency opportunities Thermal Systems/Fuels
3 © UNEP 2006 Introduction Solar energy is converted to chemical energy through photo- synthesis in plants Energy produced by burning wood or fossil fuels Fossil fuels: coal, oil and natural gas The Formation of Fuels Thermal Systems/Fuels
4 © UNEP 2006 Training Agenda: Fuels & Combustion Introduction Type of fuels Performance evaluation Energy efficiency opportunities Thermal Systems/Fuels
5 © UNEP 2006 Type of Fuels Liquid Fuels Thermal Systems/Fuels Usage Used extensively in industrial applications Examples Furnace oil Light diesel oil Petrol Kerosine Ethanol LSHS (low sulphur heavy stock)
6 © UNEP 2006 Type of Fuels Liquid Fuels Thermal Systems/Fuels Density Ratio of the fuel’s mass to its volume at 15 o C, kg/m 3 Useful for determining fuel quantity and quality
7 © UNEP 2006 Type of Fuels Liquid Fuels Thermal Systems/Fuels Specific gravity Ratio of weight of oil volume to weight of same water volume at a given temperature Specific gravity of water is 1 Hydrometer used to measure Fuel oil type LDO (Light Diesel Oil) Furnace oilLSHS ( Low Sulphur Heavy Stock) Specific Gravity Table 1. Specific gravity of various fuel oils (adapted from Thermax India Ltd.)
8 © UNEP 2006 Type of Fuels Liquid Fuels Thermal Systems/Fuels Viscosity Measure of fuel’s internal resistance to flow Most important characteristic for storage and use Decreases as temperature increases Flash point Lowest temperature at which a fuel can be heated so that the vapour gives off flashes when an open flame is passes over it Flash point of furnace oil: 66 o C
9 © UNEP 2006 Type of Fuels Liquid Fuels Thermal Systems/Fuels Pour point Lowest temperature at which fuel will flow Indication of temperature at which fuel can be pumped Specific heat kCal needed to raise temperature of 1 kg oil by 1 o C (kcal/kg o C) Indicates how much steam/electricity it takes to heat oil to a desired temperature
10 © UNEP 2006 Type of Fuels Liquid Fuels Thermal Systems/Fuels Calorific value Heat or energy produced Gross calorific value (GCV): vapour is fully condensed Net calorific value (NCV): water is not fully condensed Fuel Oil Gross Calorific Value (kCal/kg) Kerosene 11,100 Diesel Oil 10,800 L.D.O 10,700 Furnace Oil 10,500 LSHS 10,600
11 © UNEP 2006 Type of Fuels Liquid Fuels Thermal Systems/Fuels Sulphur content Depends on source of crude oil and less on the refining process Furnace oil: 2-4 % sulphur Sulphuric acid causes corrosion Ash content Inorganic material in fuel Typically % Corrosion of burner tips and damage to materials /equipments at high temperatures
12 © UNEP 2006 Type of Fuels Liquid Fuels Thermal Systems/Fuels Carbon residue Tendency of oil to deposit a carbonaceous solid residue on a hot surface Residual oil: >1% carbon residue Water content Normally low in furnace oil supplied (<1% at refinery) Free or emulsified form Can damage furnace surface and impact flame
13 © UNEP 2006 Type of Fuels Liquid Fuels Thermal Systems/Fuels Storage of fuels Store in cylindrical tanks above or below the ground Recommended storage: >10 days of normal consumption Cleaning at regular intervals
14 © UNEP 2006 Type of Fuels Liquid Fuels Thermal Systems/Fuels PropertiesFuel Oils Furnace OilL.S.H.SL.D.O Density (Approx. g/cc at 150C) Flash Point (0C) Pour Point (0C) G.C.V. (Kcal/kg) Sediment, % Wt. Max Sulphur Total, % Wt. Max. < 4.0< 0.5< 1.8 Water Content, % Vol. Max Ash % Wt. Max Typical specifications of fuel oils (adapted from Thermax India Ltd.)
15 © UNEP 2006 Type of Fuels Solid Fuels Thermal Systems/Fuels Coal classification Anthracite: hard and geologically the oldest Bituminous Lignite: soft coal and the youngest Further classification: semi- anthracite, semi-bituminous, and sub-bituminous
16 © UNEP 2006 Type of Fuels Solid Fuels Thermal Systems/Fuels Physical properties Heating or calorific value (GCV) Moisture content Volatile matter Ash Chemical properties Chemical constituents: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur
17 © UNEP 2006 Type of Fuels Solid Fuels (Physical properties) Thermal Systems/Fuels Heating or calorific value The typical GVCs for various coals are: ParameterLignite (Dry Basis) Indian Coal Indonesian Coal South African Coal GCV (kCal/kg) 4,5004,0005,5006,000
18 © UNEP 2006 Type of Fuels Solid Fuels (Physical properties) Thermal Systems/Fuels Moisture content % of moisture in fuel (0.5 – 10%) Reduces heating value of fuel Weight loss from heated and then cooled powdered raw coal Volatile matter Methane, hydrocarbons, hydrogen, CO, other Typically 25-35% Easy ignition with high volatile matter Weight loss from heated then cooled crushed coal
19 © UNEP 2006 Type of Fuels Solid Fuels (Physical properties) Thermal Systems/Fuels Ash Impurity that will not burn (5-40%) Important for design of furnace Ash = residue after combustion Fixed carbon Fixed carbon = 100 – (moisture + volatile matter + ash) Carbon + hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur, nitrogen residues Heat generator during combustion
20 © UNEP 2006 Type of Fuels Solid Fuels (Physical properties) Thermal Systems/Fuels Proximate analysis of coal Determines only fixed carbon, volatile matter, moisture and ash Useful to find out heating value (GCV) Simple analysis equipment Ultimate analysis of coal Determines all coal component elements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur, other Useful for furnace design (e.g flame temperature, flue duct design) Laboratory analysis
21 © UNEP 2006 Type of Fuels Solid Fuels (Physical properties) Thermal Systems/Fuels Proximate analysis Typical proximate analysis of various coals (%) Indian Coal Indonesian Coal South African Coal Moisture Ash Volatile matter Fixed Carbon
22 © UNEP 2006 Type of Fuels Solid Fuels (Chemical Properties) Thermal Systems/Fuels Ultimate analysis Typical ultimate analysis of coal (%) GCV (kCal/kg)
23 © UNEP 2006 Type of Fuels Solid Fuels (Chemical Properties) Thermal Systems/Fuels Storage, Handling & Preparation Storage to minimize carpet loss and loss due to spontaneouscombustion Reduce carpet loss: a) a hard surface b) standard concrete/brick storage bays Coal preparation before use is important for good combustion
24 © UNEP 2006 Type of Fuels Gaseous Fuels Thermal Systems/Fuels Advantages of gaseous fuels Least amount of handling Simplest burners systems Burner systems require least maintenance Environmental benefits: lowest GHG and other emissions
25 © UNEP 2006 Type of Fuels Gaseous Fuels Thermal Systems/Fuels Classification of gaseous fuels (A) Fuels naturally found in nature -Natural gas -Methane from coal mines (B) Fuel gases made from solid fuel -Gases derived from coal -Gases derived from waste and biomass -From other industrial processes (C) Gases made from petroleum -Liquefied Petroleum gas (LPG) -Refinery gases -Gases from oil gasification (D) Gases from some fermentation
26 © UNEP 2006 Type of Fuels Gaseous Fuels Thermal Systems/Fuels Calorific value Fuel should be compared based on the net calorific value (NCV), especially natural gas Typical physical and chemical properties of various gaseous fuels Fuel Gas Relative Density Higher Heating Value kCal/Nm 3 Air/Fuel ratio m 3 /m 3 Flame Temp o C Flame speed m/s Natural Gas Propane Butane
27 © UNEP 2006 Type of Fuels Gaseous Fuels Thermal Systems/Fuels Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Propane,butane and unsaturates, lighter C2 and heavier C5 fractions Hydrocarbons are gaseous at atmospheric pressure but can be condensed to liquid state LPG vapour is denser than air: leaking gases can flow long distances from the source
28 © UNEP 2006 Type of Fuels Gaseous Fuels Thermal Systems/Fuels Natural gas Methane: 95% Remaing 5%: ethane, propane, butane, pentane, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, other gases High calorific value fuel Does not require storage facilities No sulphur Mixes readily with air without producing smoke or soot
29 © UNEP 2006 Type of Fuels Comparing Fuels Thermal Systems/Fuels Fuel OilCoalNatural Gas Carbon Hydrogen Sulphur Oxygen19.89Trace NitrogenTrace AshTrace WaterTrace5.98-
30 © UNEP 2006 Training Agenda: Fuels & Combustion Introduction Type of fuels Performance evaluation Energy efficiency opportunities Thermal Systems/Fuels
31 © UNEP 2006 Performance Evaluation Combustion: rapid oxidation of a fuel Complete combustion: total oxidation of fuel (adequate supply of oxygen needed) Air: 20.9% oxygen, 79% nitrogen and other Nitrogen: (a) reduces the combustion efficiency (b) forms NOx at high temperatures Carbon forms (a) CO2 (b) CO resulting in less heat production Principles of Combustion Thermal Systems/Fuels
32 © UNEP 2006 Performance Evaluation Control the 3 Ts to optimize combustion: Water vapor is a by-product of burning fuel that contains hydrogen and this robs heat from the flue gases Principles of Combustion Thermal Systems/Fuels 1T) Temperature 2T) Turbulence 3T) Time
33 © UNEP 2006 Performance Evaluation Oxygen is the key to combustion Principle of Combustion Thermal Systems/Fuels Bureau of Energy Efficiency, India, 2004
34 © UNEP 2006 Performance Evaluation Stochiometric calculation of air required Thermal Systems/Fuels Stochiometric air needed for combustion of furnace oil Theoretical CO2 content in the flue gases Actual CO2 content and % excess air Constituents of flue gas with excess air Theoretical CO 2 and O 2 in dry flue gas by volume
35 © UNEP 2006 Performance Evaluation Measure CO2 in flue gases to estimate excess air level and stack losses Concept of Excess Air Thermal Systems/Fuels Carbon dioxide (%) Excess air (%) Source: Bureau of Energy Efficiency, India, 2004
36 © UNEP 2006 Performance Evaluation Concept of Excess Air Thermal Systems/Fuels Residual oxygen (%) Excess air (%) Bureau of Energy Efficiency, India, 2004 Measure O2 in flue gases to estimate excess air level and stack losses
37 © UNEP 2006 Performance Evaluation To exhaust combustion products to atmosphere Natural draft: Caused by weight difference between the hot gases inside the chimney and outside air No fans or blowers are used Mechanical draft: Artificially produced by fans Three types a) balanced draft, b) induced draft and c) forced draft Draft System Thermal Systems/Fuels
38 © UNEP 2006 Training Agenda: Fuels & Combustion Introduction Type of fuels Performance evaluation Energy efficiency opportunities Thermal Systems/Fuels
39 © UNEP 2006 Energy Efficiency Opportunities Preheating of combustion oil Temperature control of combustion oil Preparation of solid fuels Combustion controls Four main areas Thermal Systems/Fuels
40 © UNEP 2006 Energy Efficiency Opportunities Purpose: to make furnace oil easier to pump Two methods: Preheating the entire tank Preheating through an outflow heater as the oil flows out Preheating of Combustion Oil Thermal Systems/Fuels
41 © UNEP 2006 Energy Efficiency Opportunities To prevent overheating With reduced or stopped oil flow Especially electric heaters Using thermostats Temperature Control of Combustion Oil Thermal Systems/Fuels
42 © UNEP 2006 Energy Efficiency Opportunities Sizing and screening of coal Important for efficient combustion Size reduction through crushing and pulverizing (< mm) Screen to separate fines and small particles Magnetic separator for iron pieces in coal Preparation of Solid Fuels Thermal Systems/Fuels
43 © UNEP 2006 Energy Efficiency Opportunities Conditioning of coal: Coal fines cause combustion problems Segregation can be reduced by conditioning coal with water Decrease % unburnt carbon Decrease excess air level required Thermal Systems/Fuels Preparation of Solid Fuels
44 © UNEP 2006 Energy Efficiency Opportunities Blending of coal Used with excessive coal fines Blending of lumped coal with coal containing fines Limits fines in coal being fired to <25% Ensures more uniform coal supply Thermal Systems/Fuels Preparation of Solid Fuels
45 © UNEP 2006 Energy Efficiency Opportunities Assist burner to achieve optimum boiler efficiency through the regulation of fuel supply, air supply, and removal of combustion gases Three controls: On/Off control: burner is firing at full rate or it is turned off High/Low/Off control: burners with two firing rates Modulating control: matches steam pressure demand by altering the firing rate Combustion Controls Thermal Systems/Fuels
46 Training Session on Energy Equipment Fuels & Combustion THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION © UNEP GERIAP Thermal Systems/Fuels
47 Thermal Systems/Fuels © UNEP 2006 Disclaimer and References This PowerPoint training session was prepared as part of the project “Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction from Industry in Asia and the Pacific” (GERIAP). While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure that the contents of this publication are factually correct and properly referenced, UNEP does not accept responsibility for the accuracy or completeness of the contents, and shall not be liable for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the contents of this publication. © UNEP, The GERIAP project was funded by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) Full references are included in the textbook chapter that is available on
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