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Lab procedures when handling micro-organisms Distribution of micro-organisms in nature.

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Presentation on theme: "Lab procedures when handling micro-organisms Distribution of micro-organisms in nature."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lab procedures when handling micro-organisms Distribution of micro-organisms in nature

2 Learning Objectives Discuss the distribution of bacteria and fungi in nature Discuss the distribution of bacteria and fungi in nature Discuss and outline the Laboratory Procedures for Micro-organisms Discuss and outline the Laboratory Procedures for Micro-organisms State precautions used when working with micro-organisms State precautions used when working with micro-organisms Define the terms: Asepsis & Sterility Define the terms: Asepsis & Sterility Outline containment & disposal methods in relation to microbes Outline containment & disposal methods in relation to microbes

3 Micro-organisms Can only be seen with the help of a microscope Can only be seen with the help of a microscope Include bacteria, some fungi (yeast) and some protists (plankton) Include bacteria, some fungi (yeast) and some protists (plankton) Occupy a wide range of habitats e.g. salt water, fresh water, soil, dust, air, hot springs etc. Occupy a wide range of habitats e.g. salt water, fresh water, soil, dust, air, hot springs etc. Fungi are mostly terrestrial Fungi are mostly terrestrial Bacteria can be found in extreme environments from the inside of volcanoes to inside the human gut Bacteria can be found in extreme environments from the inside of volcanoes to inside the human gut

4 Laboratory procedures when handling micro-organisms

5 Asepsis means that measures are taken to exclude unwanted organisms Sterile means that all micro-organisms are destroyed i.e. there is nothing living Vocabulary

6 Inoculation is the addition of cells to the nutrient medium Incubation is the growing of the microbes in a warm environment Vocabulary

7 Learning Check Name 3 types of Micro organisms Name 3 types of Micro organisms How can you view bacteria in the laboratory? How can you view bacteria in the laboratory? What does the term asepsis mean? What does the term asepsis mean? What does the term sterile mean? What does the term sterile mean?

8 Growth of micro-organisms Under suitable conditions one micro- organism can be grown into a colony of micro-organisms which is visible to the naked eye. Micro-organisms are grown on a special medium containing a food supply, most commonly nutrient agar.

9 Growth of micro-organisms The procedures involved require caution as the micro-organism to be grown (or any contaminating micro-organism, if present) may be a disease causing microbe. As a result certain precautions are taken when handling micro-organisms to reduce the possibility of contamination and to prevent the growth of undesirable micro- organisms.

10 Wash hands before and after the experiment. Precautions that can be taken when handling micro-organisms

11 Wash the bench with disinfectant before and after the experiment. Precautions that can be taken when handling micro-organisms

12 Sterilise all equipment before and after use. This can be done by placing all equipment: In an autoclave (or pressure cooker) at 120°C for 15 minutes in Dettol for 24 hours Precautions that can be taken when handling micro-organisms

13 After an experiment material can be placed in a dustbin only after sterilisation Sterilised equipment can be reused Precautions that can be taken when handling micro-organisms

14 Flame all needles, loops and necks of test-tubes by heating them in the flame of a Bunsen burner. Precautions that can be taken when handling micro-organisms

15 Turn off the Bunsen burner when not in use or make sure that the flame is visible.

16 Precautions that can be taken when handling micro-organisms Open all containers for the shortest possible time. Open lids the shortest possible distance.

17 Precautions that can be taken when handling micro-organisms Seal all plates once inoculated.

18 Precautions that can be taken when handling micro-organisms Label all plates once prepared.

19 Learning Check List four precautions that should be taken when working with micro-organisms List four precautions that should be taken when working with micro-organisms

20 How to grow a culture.

21 Take a sterile agar plate. Flame an inoculating loop to sterilise it. Dip the loop into sterile water or alcohol to cool it.

22 Flame the neck of the container from which the sample is to be taken. Inoculate the loop by placing it briefly into the sample to be grown. Re-flame the neck of the container.

23 While only slightly opening the agar plate streak the inoculating loop across the surface of the agar. Sterilise the loop again by flaming it.

24 Label and seal the petri-dish and incubate it upside down for days. Examine the plate and record the results.

25 Once the plates are sealed and labelled turn them upside down and place them in an oven (incubator) to allow any bacteria and fungi to grow. Placing them upside down reduces problems due to condensation Growth

26 Yeasts and moulds grow best at °C. Bacteria generally require 35°C.

27 Examine the plate and record the results

28 Colonies Bacterial colonies are usually seen as white, cream or yellow shiny dots Fungal colonies appear as a powder or as a fuzzy growth, similar to cotton wool in appearance

29 Disposal All micro-organisms should be destroyed after use by sterilising all petri-dishes and equipment: by placing them in an autoclave (or pressure cooker) at 120°C for 15 minutes or by placing them in Dettol for 24 hours.

30 Learning Check What growth medium is used for micro- organisms? What growth medium is used for micro- organisms? How do you inoculate a loop? How do you inoculate a loop? How do you transfer the substance to be grown onto the agar plate? How do you transfer the substance to be grown onto the agar plate? What temperature should the agar plates be incubated at? What temperature should the agar plates be incubated at? How should plates be disposed of? How should plates be disposed of?

31 Syllabus: What you need to know Precautions when working with micro- organisms. Precautions when working with micro- organisms. Asepsis and sterility: definition of each term as applied to living organisms. Asepsis and sterility: definition of each term as applied to living organisms. Containment and disposal. Containment and disposal.


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