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Thermal Physics Temperature and Heat

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**Phases of Matter Four Phases of Matter: Solid Liquid Gas Plasma**

Temperature is one thermodynamic variable that determines the phase.

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**Common Temperature Scales**

Temperatures are reported in degrees Celsius or degrees Fahrenheit. Temperatures changed, on the other hand, are reported in Celsius degrees or Fahrenheit degrees:

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**Converting from a Fahrenheit to a Celsius Temperature **

A healthy person has an oral temperature of 98.6oF. What would this reading be on the Celsius scale? degrees above ice point ice point

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**Converting from a Celsius to a Fahrenheit Temperature **

A time and temperature sign on a bank indicates that the outdoor temperature is -20.0oC. Find the corresponding temperature on the Fahrenheit scale. degrees below ice point ice point

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**Fahrenheit Daniel Fahrenheit 1686 - 1736**

According to a journal article Fahrenheit wrote in 1724, he based his scale on three reference points of temperature. The zero point is determined by placing the thermometer in brine: he used a mixture of ice, water, and ammonium chloride. The mixture automatically stabilizes its temperature at 0 °F. He then put a thermometer into the mixture and let the liquid in the thermometer descend to its lowest point. The second point is the 32 degree found by putting the thermometer in still water as ice is just forming on the surface. The third point, the 96 degree, was the level of the liquid in the thermometer when held in the mouth or under the armpit. Later, work by other scientists observed that water boils about 180 degrees higher than the freezing point and decided to redefine the degree slightly to make it exactly 180 degrees higher. It is for this reason that normal body temperature is 98.6 on the revised scale (whereas it was 96 on Fahrenheit's original scale).

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Unsatisfied with the Celsius and Fahrenheit temperature scales, you decide to create your own. On your temperature scale, the ice point is 77 M and the steam point is at 437 M, where “M” stands for “my scale.” What temperature on your scale corresponds to 68 F? 154 M 168 M 140 M 136 M 149 M 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

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**Kelvin Temperature Scale William Thomson,**

1st Baron Kelvin (Lord Kelvin) Kelvin Temperature Scale

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**Temperatures have an extremely large range, both on Earth and throughout the Universe.**

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Thermometers Thermometers make use of the change in some physical property with temperature. A property that changes with temperature is called a thermometric property. All thermometers require calibration.

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**Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics**

If bodies A and B are each in thermal equilibrium with a third body C, then they are in thermal equilibrium with each other. Translation: Every body has a property called temperature. When two bodies (one might be a thermometer) are found to be in thermal equilibrium, then their temperatures are the same. This may be used to determine the temperature of a third body (through calibration).

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**Heat is energy that flows from a higher- **

DEFINITION OF HEAT Heat is energy that flows from a higher- temperature object to a lower-temperature object because of a difference in temperatures. SI Unit of Heat: joule (J) The heat that flows from hot to cold originates in the internal energy of the hot substance. It is not correct to say that a substance contains heat. OTHER UNITS 1 kcal = 4186 joules 1 cal = joules 1 BTU = 1055 J

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**Heat and Temperature Change: Specific Heat Capacity**

The heat that must be supplied or removed to change the temperature of a substance is specific heat capacity Common Unit for Specific Heat Capacity: J/(kg·Co) 1 kcal = 4186 J 1 BTU = 1055 J

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When you drink cold water, your body must expend metabolic energy to maintain normal body temperature of 37 oC by warming up the water in your stomach. Could drinking ice water substitute for exercise as a way to “burn calories?” Suppose you expend 430 kilocalories during a brisk one-hour walk. How many liters of ice water would you have to drink in order to use 430 kilocalories of metabolic energy? Note: the stomach can hold about one liter.

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**In a half-hour, a 65-kg jogger can generate 8. 0x105J of heat**

In a half-hour, a 65-kg jogger can generate 8.0x105J of heat. This heat is removed from the body by a variety of means, including the body’s own temperature-regulating mechanisms. If the heat were not removed, how much would the body temperature increase?

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**Heat and Phase Change: Latent Heat**

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Saving Energy Suppose you are cooking spaghetti for dinner, and the instructions say “boil pasta in water for 10 minutes.” To cook spaghetti in an open pot with the least amount of energy, should you turn up the burner to its fullest so the water vigorously boils, or should you turn down the burner so the water barely boils? turn up the burner to its fullest so the water vigorously boils, or should you turn down the burner so the water barely boils? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

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**Answer We need water at 100 oC for 10 minutes.**

Adding additional energy only produces steam, which doesn’t help cook the spaghetti. Keep the flame to just enough to boil and save energy and money.

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A calorimeter consisting of a thin copper cup of mass 150 g containing 500 g of water is at a temperature of 20.0 oC. A 225-g sample of an unknown material at 508 oC is lowered into the bath, and the device is sealed. After a few minutes, the system reaches a constant temperature of 40.0 oC. Determine the specific heat of the unknown material. Ignore any losses due to the thermometer. The heat transferred out of the sample (which is a negative number) equals the heat transferred into the water and the cup.

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**You find that you have let a 2**

You find that you have let a 2.5 kg stainless steel barbeque grate become too hot for cooking. You Decide to cool the grate from 296 oC to 185 oC by spraying water onto the grate. The specific heat of steel = 445 J/kg - K. Calculate the mass of water at 20 oC you will need, assuming all the water evaporates to steam at 100 oC. heat lost by plate = heat gained by water in raising its own temp + heat to transform water into steam

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**Heat = transfer of energy**

From someplace hot to someplace cold Convection Conduction Radiation

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Convection Convection is the process in which heat is carried from one place to another by the bulk movement of a fluid.

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Concepts in action Hot water baseboard heating units are mounted on the wall next to the floor. The cooling coil in a refrigerator is mounted near the top of the refrigerator. Each location is designed to maximize the production of convection currents.

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Forced Convection

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CONDUCTION Conduction is the process whereby heat is transferred directly through a material, with any bulk motion of the material playing no role in the transfer. One mechanism for conduction occurs when the atoms or molecules in a hotter part of the material vibrate or move with greater energy than those in a cooler part. These vibrations have specific values and are called phonons. By means of collisions, the more energetic molecules pass on some of their energy to their less energetic neighbors. Another mechanism is free electrons within a metal conduct heat. Materials that conduct heat well are called thermal conductors, and those that conduct heat poorly are called thermal insulators.

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Conduction The heat Q conducted during a time t through a bar of length L and cross-sectional area A is The amount of heat Q that is conducted through the bar depends on a number of factors: The time during which conduction takes place. The temperature difference between the ends of the bar. The cross sectional area of the bar. The length of the bar. SI Units of Thermal Conductivity: J/(s·m·Co)

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Thermal Conductivity

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**What thickness of concrete, with a thermal conductivity of 1**

What thickness of concrete, with a thermal conductivity of 1.1 J/(smK) will conduct heat at the same rate as 0.25 m of air, which has a thermal conductivity of J/(smK), if all other conditions are the same?

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Insulation Materials with dead air spaces are usually excellent thermal insulators.

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**Example: Thermal Conduction**

One wall of a house consists of plywood backed by insulation. The thermal conductivities of the insulation and plywood are, respectively, and J/(s·m·Co), and the area of the wall is 35 m2. Find the amount of heat conducted through the wall in one hour.

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**Example: Thermal Conduction**

But first we must solve for the interface temperature.

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**Example: Thermal Conduction**

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**The rate of heat transfer is the same for all three materials so**

Three building materials, plasterboard, brick, and wood, are sandwiched together as the drawing illustrates. The temperatures at the inside and outside surfaces are 27 °C and 0 °C, respectively. Each material has the same thickness and cross-sectional area. Find the temperature (a) at the plasterboard–brick interface and (b) at the brick–wood interface. The rate of heat transfer is the same for all three materials so

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Let Ti be the inside temperature, T1 be the temperature at the plasterboard-brick interface, T2 be the temperature at the brick-wood interface, and To be the outside temperature.

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**Radiation Radiation is the process in which**

energy is transferred by means of electromagnetic waves. A material that is a good absorber is also a good emitter. A material that absorbs completely is called a perfect blackbody.

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**Black Robe Mystery Why do Bedouins wear black robes?**

Scientists checked into the matter by having a man stand in the hot desert sun first in a white robe and then in a black one. They found that the black robe absorbed 2.5 times more solar radiation and was 11 oF (6 oC) hotter than the white one. The extra warm air trapped by the black color experiences a buoyancy force equal to the weight of the cool air it displaces. The warm air rises up and out of the robe top. This, in turn, creates a breeze as cooler air is drawn in at the bottom. The breeze evaporates sweat, cooling the robe wearer, and moves the sweat-laden air out the robe top. The loose-fitting burnoose is a solar air-conditioning system. The skin temperature was the same in either robe, but the man felt cooler in the black one.

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Blackbody Radiation The maximum of the intensity shifts to shorter wavelengths as the black-body temperature increases.

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**THE STEFAN-BOLTZMANN LAW OF RADIATION **

The radiant energy Q, emitted in a time t by an object that has a Kelvin temperature T, a surface area A, and an emissivity e, is given by The emissivity e is a dimensionless number between zero and one. It is the ratio of what an object radiates to what the object would radiate if it were a perfect emitter. Stefan-Boltzmann constant Rate of Heat Transfer

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A cube, 10 cm on a side, of rough steel is heated in a furnace to a temperature of oC. If its total emissivity is 0.97, determine the rate at which it radiates energy from each face.

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Example: Radiation The supergiant star Betelgeuse has a surface temperature of about 2900 K and emits a power of approximately 4 x1030 W. Assuming that Betelgeuse is a perfect emitter and spherical, find its radius.

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**Application: Thermos Bottle**

A thermos bottle minimizes heat transfer via conduction, convection, and radiation.

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