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Supplementary Information Heat Treating Industry, Processes and Equipment A seminar Presented for Southern California Gas Company Sales Staff February.

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Presentation on theme: "Supplementary Information Heat Treating Industry, Processes and Equipment A seminar Presented for Southern California Gas Company Sales Staff February."— Presentation transcript:

1 Supplementary Information Heat Treating Industry, Processes and Equipment A seminar Presented for Southern California Gas Company Sales Staff February 20th, Presented By Arvind C. Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales

2 Specific Effects of Steel Heat Treating
Improve the Toughness Increase the Hardness Increase the Ductility Improve the Machineability Refine the Grain Structure Remove the Residual Stresses Improve the Wear Resistance Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales

3 Heat Treating Processing Equipment Gas Fired Furnaces
Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales

4 Heat Treating Furnace Heat Containment Heat Generation Heat Heat
Process Atmosphere Exhaust Gases Heat Containment Heat Generation Heat Energy Source (fuel, electricity, etc.) Heat Recovery Transfer Air Material Handling Material Handling Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales

5 Heat Distribution in a Gas Fired Furnace
(Typical) Wall losses 10% to 20% Flue gas losses 35% to 65% Heat to work 20% to 40% Total Heat Input 100% Fixtures, Baskets etc 15% to 40% Heat Storage 5% to 20% Atmosphere Losses 5% to 10% Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales

6 Type of Heating Equipment By Material Handling
Continuous Belt Conveyor (Mesh or Cast) Pusher Tray Roller Hearth Rotary Hearth Rotary Retort (Kiln) Shaker Hearth Overhead Conveyor Walking Beam Batch Box Furnaces In & Out (Integral Quench) Furnaces Bogy or Car-bottom Gantry Furnaces Bell Type Pit Furnace Fluidized Bed Salt Bath Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales

7 Type of Heating Equipment By Material Handling
Continuous Belt Conveyor (Mesh or Cast) Pusher Tray Roller Hearth Rotary Hearth Rotary Retort (Kiln) Shaker Hearth Overhead Conveyor Walking Beam Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales

8 Type of Heating Equipment By Material Handling
Batch Box Furnaces In & Out (Integral Quench) Furnaces Bogy or Car-bottom Gantry Furnaces Bell Type Pit Furnace Fluidized Bed Salt Bath Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales

9 Bell Type Furnaces Batch Furnace With High (2 to 100 Tons) Capacity Used in Mills and Heat Treat Shops. Primarily Used for Annealing of Ferrous and Non-ferrous Strip or Wire Coils. Can Be Operated With a Variety of Atmospheres Including 100% Hydrogen. Integral Cooling Coils to Provide Accelerated Load Cooling. Includes High Capacity Fan to Provide Convective Heating. Radiant Tube Burner Outside a Muffle Muffle or Cover Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales

10 Radiant Tube Heated Vacuum Furnaces
The load is heated in vacuum in absence of any type of gases. Usually batch type furnaces. Used for special heat treating processes . Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales

11 Fluidized Bed Furnace Consists of a Heat Resisting Retort Heated by Gas Fired Burners or Electric Heating Elements. Contains “Sand” Bed That Is Fluidized With Proper Velocity of the Required Atmosphere. Used for Small Parts. Can Be Used for a Variety of Heat Treating Processes. Gives Excellent Heat Transfer and Temperature Uniformity. Can Be Designed to Give High Efficiency and Low NOx Emissions. Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales

12 Pit Furnace Batch Type Furnace Underground
Radiant Tube or Electric Heating Relatively Low Heat Losses Due to Good Insulation Used for Large or Large & Long Loads Typical Loads Include Turbine Shafts, Gears, Pipes, Oil-field Components Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales

13 Other Commonly Used Furnaces
Retort Furnace (revolving) Shaker Hearth Furnace Car Bottom Furnace Tip-up furnace “Gantry” Furnace Muffle Furnace Box Furnace Slot Furnace Salt Bath Furnace Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales

14 Radiant Tube Heated Continuous Furnace
A Continuous Carburizer for Heat Treating Large Volume Small Parts. Uses a Variety of Material Handling Methods (Belt, Rollers, Rails, Etc) and Trays, Baskets or Fixtures to Hold Parts. Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales

15 Process Atmospheres for
Heat Treating Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales

16 Natural Gas or Ammonia Based Heat Treating Atmospheres
Use Natural Gas – Air Reactions or “Cracking” of Ammonia To produce the required gas composition Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales

17 Lean or Inert Exothermic (Exo) Gas
How are they made? Combustion of natural gas and air at near sub-stoichiometric* conditions Water vapor removed from the products of combustion (flue gases) Where are they used? Purging and Blanketing of Furnace Vestibules, Chemical Tanks, etc. Annealing of Non-ferrous Alloys Tempering & Bluing of Medium Carbon Steel (0.2% to 0.5% C) Bluing of Silicon Steel Laminations, Electrical and Tool Steel * Sub-stoichiometric means that air flow to the burner is less than what is required to complete combustion Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales

18 Rich Exothermic (Exo) Atmosphere
How are they made? Combustion of natural gas and air at sub-stoichiometric – rich* conditions Water vapor removed from the products of combustion (flue gases) Where are they used? Annealing of Forged Blanks Annealing and Normalizing of Low to Medium Carbon Steels Bright Annealing, of Low Carbon (up to 0.2% C) Steels Motor Lamination Annealing Copper Brazing Sintering of Low Carbon Powdered Metals * Sub-stoichiometric means that air flow to the burner is less than what is required to complete combustion Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales

19 Purified Lean and Rich Exothermic Gas
How are they made? Combustion of natural gas and air at or near sub-stoichiometric* or at rich conditions Water vapor and carbon dioxide removed from the products of combustion (flue gases) Where are they used? Lean: Substitute for Commercial Nitrogen Annealing of Malleable Iron Purging of Furnaces, Tanks With Flammable Liquids Food Storage Rich: Substitute for Low Dew-point N2-H2 Mixtures in Heat Treating Powder Metal Sintering Bright Annealing of Non-ferrous Metals Annealing of Medium and High Carbon Steels * Sub-stoichiometric means that air flow to the burner is less than what is required to complete combustion Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales

20 Endothermic (Endo) Atmosphere (High Dew point)
How are they made? Products of reaction of natural gas and air at rich (highly sub- stoichiometric) conditions in presence of a catalyst in an externally heated reactor or tube. External heat supply is required for production of endothermic atmosphere Where are they used? Carburizing, Brazing and Sintering of Low to Medium Carbon Steel Bright Annealing, Carbon Restoration and Brazing of Medium and High Carbon Steels Annealing, Clean Hardening of Tool Steels and High Alloy Steels Sintering of Powder Metal Parts * Sub-stoichiometric means that air flow to the burner is less than what is required to complete combustion Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales

21 Dissociated Ammonia Atmosphere
How are they made? Dissociation (cracking) of ammonia (NH3) into nitrogen(N2) and hydrogen(H2) in presence of a catalyst in an externally heated reactor or tubes. External heat supply is required for production of dissociated ammonia atmosphere atmosphere Where are they used? Brazing and Sintering of Low Carbon Steels Rapid De-oxidation of Metal Surfaces Purification of By-product Nitrogen for Annealing Bright Annealing of Stainless Steel, Silicone Steel Sintering of Stainless Steel Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales

22 Concerns About Generated Process Atmospheres
Fixed composition Lack of flexibility in gas composition Variations in composition with turn-down Difficulty in control Dependent on natural gas composition that may vary seasonally High capital investment Resources required for operation and supervision. Lack of reliable automation Periodic maintenance (soot burnout etc.) requirements Cost of repairs and maintenance for internal parts Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales

23 Industrial Gas Based Atmospheres
Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales

24 Industrial Gas Based Process Atmospheres
“Sold” as: “Engineered” Atmosphere Deliver Optimum Atmosphere to Meet Specific Application Flexibility in Delivery Options: PSA or Membrane Systems, Storage of Liquid Gases, Pre-scheduled Delivery, Service Etc. Extremely Low (< - 90 F) Dew Point and Low (<5 ppm) Oxygen Precise Control of Dew-point and ppm Oxygen Levels at All Flows Lower Overall Cost Per Application (is Claimed!) Little or No Capital Investment Automated Operation Total Responsibility for Delivery - No Need for an Operator or Maintenance Personnel for Generators Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales

25 Comments and Considerations
Industrial Gas Based Process Atmospheres vs. Natural gas Based Atmospheres In most heat treating operations cost of natural gas based atmosphere is lower than total cost of industrial gas based atmosphere The total cost calculations must include factors such as: Cost of gases as delivered and price changes Cost of equipment rental and maintenance Costs related to minimum gas usage and payment Use of utilities related to production and/or distribution of the gases Surcharges such as electricity cost Cost of commitment for minimum contract period Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales

26 Cost Comparison Endothermic Atmosphere vs. Nitrogen-Methanol
Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales

27 Electrical Heating Systems for Heat Treating Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc.
Sales

28 Resistance Electrical Heating Systems
Shapes: Rods, wire, shaped strips, etc. Directly exposed or inside in an enclosure (tube) Size Range: Available in a wide variety of diameters, lengths and width Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales

29 Who are Vacuum Furnace Customers?
30% of All Heat Treaters Use at Least One Vacuum Furnace. 25% of Customers Plan to Add Vacuum Equipment During the Next 5 Years. Approximately 3,000 to 4,000 Vacuum Furnaces Are Used in U.S. and Canada. Approximately 100 to 300 Vacuum Furnaces Are Installed in U.S. Primary Users: Aircraft and Aerospace. Growth Area: Tool and Die Makers and Automotive. Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales

30 Other Vacuum Applications
Plasma Nitriding Plasma Carburizing CVD Coatings Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales

31 Induction Heating Major Advantages
Low Scale and Scrap (Decarb, Distortion, etc.) Losses Lower Life-cycle Cost “Precise” or Better Control and Automation “Cool” Less Space - Smaller Foot Print Simpler Material Handling Ease of Start-up and Shutdown “Safe” Better Metallurgical Results Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales Induction

32 Induction Heating Major Disadvantages High Capital Cost
High Energy Cost Lack of Flexibility for Production Parts Shape and Size Not Recommended for Progressive Heating, and Large and Complex Parts Requires “Specialized” Maintenance Skills & Personnel Not Recommended With Special Atmospheres Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales Induction

33 Induction Equipment for Metal Heating
Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales Induction

34 Selected Sources for Information
Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales

35 Glossary Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales


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