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Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales Supplementary Information Supplementary Information Heat Treating Industry, Processes and Equipment A seminar Presented.

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Presentation on theme: "Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales Supplementary Information Supplementary Information Heat Treating Industry, Processes and Equipment A seminar Presented."— Presentation transcript:

1 Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales Supplementary Information Supplementary Information Heat Treating Industry, Processes and Equipment A seminar Presented for Southern California Gas Company Sales Staff February 20 th, 2002 Presented By Arvind C. Thekdi - E 3 M, Inc.

2 Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales Specific Effects of Steel Heat Treating Improve the Toughness Increase the Hardness Increase the Ductility Improve the Machineability Refine the Grain Structure Remove the Residual Stresses Improve the Wear Resistance

3 Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales Heat Treating Processing Equipment Gas Fired Furnaces

4 Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales Heat Transfer Heat Containment Heat Recovery Energy Source (fuel, electricity, etc.) HeatGeneration Exhaust Gases Material Handling Air Process Atmosphere Material Handling Heat Treating Furnace

5 Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales Heat to work 20% to 40% Flue gas losses 35% to 65% Wall losses 10% to 20% Fixtures, Baskets etc 15% to 40% Heat Storage 5% to 20% Total Heat Input 100% Atmosphere Losses 5% to 10% Heat Distribution in a Gas Fired Furnace (Typical)

6 Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales Type of Heating Equipment By Material Handling Continuous Belt Conveyor (Mesh or Cast) Pusher Tray Roller Hearth Rotary Hearth Rotary Retort (Kiln) Shaker Hearth Overhead Conveyor Walking BeamBatch Box Furnaces In & Out (Integral Quench) Furnaces Bogy or Car-bottom Gantry Furnaces Bell Type Pit Furnace Fluidized Bed Salt Bath

7 Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales Continuous Belt Conveyor (Mesh or Cast) Pusher Tray Roller Hearth Rotary Hearth Rotary Retort (Kiln) Shaker Hearth Overhead Conveyor Walking Beam Type of Heating Equipment By Material Handling

8 Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales Type of Heating Equipment By Material Handling Batch Box Furnaces In & Out (Integral Quench) Furnaces Bogy or Car-bottom Gantry Furnaces Bell Type Pit Furnace Fluidized Bed Salt Bath

9 Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales Batch Furnace With High (2 to 100 Tons) Capacity Used in Mills and Heat Treat Shops. Primarily Used for Annealing of Ferrous and Non-ferrous Strip or Wire Coils. Can Be Operated With a Variety of Atmospheres Including 100% Hydrogen. Integral Cooling Coils to Provide Accelerated Load Cooling. Includes High Capacity Fan to Provide Convective Heating. Radiant Tube Burner Outside a Muffle Muffle or Cover Bell Type Furnaces

10 Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales Radiant Tube Heated Vacuum Furnaces The load is heated in vacuum in absence of any type of gases. Usually batch type furnaces. Used for special heat treating processes.

11 Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales Fluidized Bed Furnace Consists of a Heat Resisting Retort Heated by Gas Fired Burners or Electric Heating Elements. Contains “Sand” Bed That Is Fluidized With Proper Velocity of the Required Atmosphere. Used for Small Parts. Can Be Used for a Variety of Heat Treating Processes. Gives Excellent Heat Transfer and Temperature Uniformity. Can Be Designed to Give High Efficiency and Low NOx Emissions.

12 Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales Pit Furnace Batch Type Furnace Underground Radiant Tube or Electric Heating Relatively Low Heat Losses Due to Good Insulation Used for Large or Large & Long Loads Typical Loads Include Turbine Shafts, Gears, Pipes, Oil-field Components

13 Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales Other Commonly Used Furnaces Retort Furnace (revolving) Shaker Hearth Furnace Car Bottom Furnace Tip-up furnace “Gantry” Furnace Muffle Furnace Box Furnace Slot Furnace Salt Bath Furnace

14 Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales Radiant Tube Heated Continuous Furnace A Continuous Carburizer for Heat Treating Large Volume Small Parts. Uses a Variety of Material Handling Methods (Belt, Rollers, Rails, Etc) and Trays, Baskets or Fixtures to Hold Parts.

15 Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales Process Atmospheres for Heat Treating Process Atmospheres for Heat Treating

16 Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales Natural Gas or Ammonia Based Heat Treating Atmospheres Use Natural Gas – Air Reactions or “Cracking” of Ammonia To produce the required gas composition

17 Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales Lean or Inert Exothermic (Exo) Gas Purging and Blanketing of Furnace Vestibules, Chemical Tanks, etc. Annealing of Non-ferrous Alloys Tempering & Bluing of Medium Carbon Steel (0.2% to 0.5% C) Bluing of Silicon Steel Laminations, Electrical and Tool Steel Where are they used? Combustion of natural gas and air at near sub-stoichiometric * conditions Water vapor removed from the products of combustion (flue gases) How are they made? * Sub-stoichiometric means that air flow to the burner is less than what is required to complete combustion

18 Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales Rich Exothermic (Exo) Atmosphere Annealing of Forged Blanks Annealing and Normalizing of Low to Medium Carbon Steels Bright Annealing, of Low Carbon (up to 0.2% C) Steels Motor Lamination Annealing Copper Brazing Sintering of Low Carbon Powdered Metals Where are they used? Combustion of natural gas and air at sub-stoichiometric – rich * conditions Water vapor removed from the products of combustion (flue gases) How are they made? * Sub-stoichiometric means that air flow to the burner is less than what is required to complete combustion

19 Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales Purified Lean and Rich Exothermic Gas Lean: Substitute for Commercial Nitrogen –Annealing of Malleable Iron –Purging of Furnaces, Tanks With Flammable Liquids –Food Storage Rich: Substitute for Low Dew-point N2-H2 Mixtures in Heat Treating –Powder Metal Sintering –Bright Annealing of Non-ferrous Metals –Annealing of Medium and High Carbon Steels Where are they used? Combustion of natural gas and air at or near sub-stoichiometric * or at rich conditions Water vapor and carbon dioxide removed from the products of combustion (flue gases) How are they made? * Sub-stoichiometric means that air flow to the burner is less than what is required to complete combustion

20 Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales Endothermic (Endo) Atmosphere (High Dew point) Carburizing, Brazing and Sintering of Low to Medium Carbon Steel Bright Annealing, Carbon Restoration and Brazing of Medium and High Carbon Steels Annealing, Clean Hardening of Tool Steels and High Alloy Steels Sintering of Powder Metal Parts Where are they used? Products of reaction of natural gas and air at rich (highly sub- stoichiometric) conditions in presence of a catalyst in an externally heated reactor or tube. External heat supply is required for production of endothermic atmosphere How are they made? * Sub-stoichiometric means that air flow to the burner is less than what is required to complete combustion

21 Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales Dissociated Ammonia Atmosphere Brazing and Sintering of Low Carbon Steels Rapid De-oxidation of Metal Surfaces Purification of By-product Nitrogen for Annealing Bright Annealing of Stainless Steel, Silicone Steel Sintering of Stainless Steel Where are they used? Dissociation (cracking) of ammonia (NH3) into nitrogen(N2) and hydrogen(H2) in presence of a catalyst in an externally heated reactor or tubes. External heat supply is required for production of dissociated ammonia atmosphere atmosphere How are they made?

22 Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales Concerns About Generated Process Atmospheres Fixed composition –Lack of flexibility in gas composition –Variations in composition with turn-down –Difficulty in control –Dependent on natural gas composition that may vary seasonally High capital investment Resources required for operation and supervision. Lack of reliable automation Periodic maintenance (soot burnout etc.) requirements Cost of repairs and maintenance for internal parts

23 Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales Industrial Gas Based Atmospheres

24 Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales Industrial Gas Based Process Atmospheres “Sold” as: “Engineered” Atmosphere Deliver Optimum Atmosphere to Meet Specific Application Flexibility in Delivery Options: PSA or Membrane Systems, Storage of Liquid Gases, Pre-scheduled Delivery, Service Etc. Extremely Low (< - 90 F) Dew Point and Low (<5 ppm) Oxygen Precise Control of Dew-point and ppm Oxygen Levels at All Flows Lower Overall Cost Per Application (is Claimed!) Little or No Capital Investment Automated Operation Total Responsibility for Delivery - No Need for an Operator or Maintenance Personnel for Generators

25 Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales Comments and Considerations Industrial Gas Based Process Atmospheres vs. Natural gas Based Atmospheres In most heat treating operations cost of natural gas based atmosphere is lower than total cost of industrial gas based atmosphere The total cost calculations must include factors such as: –Cost of gases as delivered and price changes –Cost of equipment rental and maintenance –Costs related to minimum gas usage and payment –Use of utilities related to production and/or distribution of the gases –Surcharges such as electricity cost –Cost of commitment for minimum contract period

26 Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales Cost Comparison Endothermic Atmosphere vs. Nitrogen-Methanol

27 Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales Electrical Heating Systems for Heat Treating Electrical Heating Systems for Heat Treating

28 Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales Resistance Electrical Heating Systems Shapes: n Rods, wire, shaped strips, etc. n Directly exposed or inside in an enclosure (tube) n Size Range: Available in a wide variety of diameters, lengths and width

29 Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales Who are Vacuum Furnace Customers? 30% of All Heat Treaters Use at Least One Vacuum Furnace. 25% of Customers Plan to Add Vacuum Equipment During the Next 5 Years. Approximately 3,000 to 4,000 Vacuum Furnaces Are Used in U.S. and Canada. Approximately 100 to 300 Vacuum Furnaces Are Installed in U.S. Primary Users: Aircraft and Aerospace. Growth Area: Tool and Die Makers and Automotive.

30 Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales Other Vacuum Applications Plasma Nitriding Plasma Carburizing CVD Coatings

31 Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales Induction Heating Major Advantages Low Scale and Scrap (Decarb, Distortion, etc.) Losses Lower Life-cycle Cost “Precise” or Better Control and Automation “Cool” Less Space - Smaller Foot Print Simpler Material Handling Ease of Start-up and Shutdown “Safe” Better Metallurgical Results Induction

32 Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales Induction Heating Induction Major Disadvantages High Capital Cost High Energy Cost Lack of Flexibility for Production Parts Shape and Size Not Recommended for Progressive Heating, and Large and Complex Parts Requires “Specialized” Maintenance Skills & Personnel Not Recommended With Special Atmospheres

33 Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales Induction Equipment for Metal Heating Induction

34 Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales Selected Sources for Information

35 Arvind Thekdi - E3M, Inc. Sales Glossary


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