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Combustion Limits in Fire and Explosion Hazards Geoff Chamberlain and Jonathan Puttock, Major Hazards Management Team, Shell Global solutions UK, Chester.

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Presentation on theme: "Combustion Limits in Fire and Explosion Hazards Geoff Chamberlain and Jonathan Puttock, Major Hazards Management Team, Shell Global solutions UK, Chester."— Presentation transcript:

1 Combustion Limits in Fire and Explosion Hazards Geoff Chamberlain and Jonathan Puttock, Major Hazards Management Team, Shell Global solutions UK, Chester. CONFIDENTIAL

2 Early Experiments – G. Kalghatgi, 1981 Determined the blow out limits for subsonic gases. Established universal stability curve.

3 Experimental results – Mach No. v burner diameter qq q

4 Flame stability in still air – natural gas

5 Experiments in crosswinds – lifted flames Sheffield University wind tunnel at Buxton Burners 2-20 mm, crosswinds up to 8m/s Methane, propane, Butagas (propane/butane mix), ethylene Results non-dimensionalised using the grouping Flames are less stable when burner tilted away from wind

6 Flame stability – lifted flames in crosswind

7 Video Wake stabilised flames

8 The Universal Flame Stability Map CONFIDENTIAL

9 Wake stabilised flames – effect of burner tilt Burner tilted away from flame, flame is more stable – opposite effect with lifted flames.

10 Bradley et al – simulation heat release contours MW/m 3. Jet mean velocity 20m/s, crosswind 5.5 m/s. 10mm diam. CMC flamelet combustion model. HPCx Daresbury. q q

11 Bradley et al – simulation heat release contours and velocity vectors close to burner tip. q q q

12 Flammability Limits – Fuel/air/water vapour system. Flame extinction and oscillatory flames in compartments. qq


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