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ATOMIC SPECTROMETRY 1. Flames 2. Electrothermal Atomizers 3. Plasmas
X = laser plasmas stellar interior
Combustion zones in the common Bunsen Burner
Combustion zones in a pre-mixed, elongated, laminar flame
Temperature profiles for a natural gas-air flame.
Air-Acetylene Flame Fuel-air ratios
How do we introduce liquid samples into the flame? Direct Insertion… Total Consumption Burner
VERY NOISY!! Total Consumption Burner
Plan B: Use a nebulizer
Concentric nebulizer Crossed-flow nebulizer
V-Groove Babington nebulizer Ball-type Babington nebulizer for viscous samples
Pre-mixed flame system with concentric nebulizer and spray chamber
Perkin-Elmer Burner System
Burner Head Design (Looking down from above) Emission/Fluorescence Absorption
Fraction of analyte present as neutral free gaseous atom in the flame
Background Emission from Flames Oxygen - Hydrogen Oxygen - Acetylene Nitrous oxide - Acetylene
Flame Absorption Profiles vary by element
Signals also vary with sample flow rate
Block Diagram of a Flame Emission Spectrometer
Schematic Diagram of a single-beam atomic absorption spectrometer
The monochromator in an atomic absorption experiment simply isolates the appropriate spectral line from all of the lines emitted by the light source
Atomic Absorption Spectrometers
Continuum Source Background Correction
Representative Flame Detection Limits (ng/mL)
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