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ATOMIC SPECTROMETRY 1. Flames 2. Electrothermal Atomizers 3. Plasmas

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X = laser plasmas stellar interior

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NaMg +

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Na Spectrum

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Combustion zones in the common Bunsen Burner

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Combustion zones in a pre-mixed, elongated, laminar flame

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Temperature profiles for a natural gas-air flame.

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Air-Acetylene Flame Fuel-air ratios

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How do we introduce liquid samples into the flame? Direct Insertion… Total Consumption Burner

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VERY NOISY!! Total Consumption Burner

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Plan B: Use a nebulizer

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Concentric nebulizer Crossed-flow nebulizer

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V-Groove Babington nebulizer Ball-type Babington nebulizer for viscous samples

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Pre-mixed flame system with concentric nebulizer and spray chamber

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Perkin-Elmer Burner System

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Burner Head Design (Looking down from above) Emission/Fluorescence Absorption

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Fraction of analyte present as neutral free gaseous atom in the flame

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Background Emission from Flames Oxygen - Hydrogen Oxygen - Acetylene Nitrous oxide - Acetylene

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Flame Absorption Profiles vary by element

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Signals also vary with sample flow rate

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Block Diagram of a Flame Emission Spectrometer

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Schematic Diagram of a single-beam atomic absorption spectrometer

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The monochromator in an atomic absorption experiment simply isolates the appropriate spectral line from all of the lines emitted by the light source

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Atomic Absorption Spectrometers

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Continuum Source Background Correction

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Representative Flame Detection Limits (ng/mL)

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