Presentation on theme: "REPUBLIC OF IRAQ MINISTRY OF INDUSTRY AND MINERALS STATE CO. OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY & MINING."— Presentation transcript:
REPUBLIC OF IRAQ MINISTRY OF INDUSTRY AND MINERALS STATE CO. OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY & MINING
SUGGESTED INVESTMENT PROJECTS IN THE MINERAL SECTOR BASED ON PRODUCTION SHARING Executive Summary
The following projects are suggested on the basis of mineral resources available in Iraq, technical feasibility based on international knowledge and Iraqi experience, and economic feasibility based on local and regional markets.
1- Phosphoric acid plant
Raw materials :- Phosphorite (Wadi Hirri deposit - Akashat, Anbar) and native sulfur ( M3 deposit-Mishraq, Nineva).
Reserves: -195 m.t. of raw phosphorite (proved) can be mind by open cast and can be concentrated by mechanical means (seizing) to about 31% P 2 O 5 (no calcination required) with weight recovery 60% and P 2 O 5 recovery 80%. Native sulfur reserves are estimated by 224 m.t., in three subsurface horizons, m. thick with 20-24% S, extractable by Frash Method or its modifications.
Process:- Conventional; phosphate concentrate + H2SO4 (Phosphogypsum byproduct). Proved by pilot plant production in India.
Suggested production capacity:- 1 m.t. conc. H 3 PO 4 / year, which requires 6 m.t. of raw phosphorite to produce 3.5 m.t. of phosphate concentrate and 1.2 m.t. native sulfur to produce 3.5 m.t. of conc. H 2 SO 4. The phosphorite reserves should last for 30 years of production.
Suggested site for the plant:- Akashat (Anbar) where railway line, paved road, HT electricity and water pipeline are available (see map).
Economic feasibility:- High in view of the low cost of mineral exploitation in Iraq, availability of basic infrastructures at the site and availability of marketing inside Iraq (phosphate fertilizers) and for export (Asian markets). Present prices for phosphoric acid is 450 US $ (FOB US), 560 US $ (cfr India) and 1450 US $ (cfr Europe).
2- Production of alumina (smelter-grade)
Raw materials:- limestone (swab deposit-Akashat, Anbar) and kaolin (N. Hussainiyat deposit, Anbar).
Reserves:- 500 m.t. of limestone (proved) with 53-55% CaO, can be mined by open cast. Kaolin clay reserves are 200 m.t. (proved) with 28-31% Al 2 O 3 and 6-8% Fe 2 O 3 which can be mined by open cast.
Process:- Lime-sinter process (Polish know- how), tested using the suggested Iraqi raw material in Iraq (laboratory tests) and in Poland (pilot tests). The process includes grinding (-75 µ m) of the limestone-kaolin mixture (calculated stoichiometric proportions), calcination at 1350˚C (1 hr.), extraction of Al by soda ash, removal of silica from the extract by CaO, precipitation of Al-hydroxide by CO 2 injection (99% recovery), filtration, calcination of the Al- hydroxide at 1350˚C (1 hr.), production of alumina (99.7% pure and 75% recovery), clinker by-product.
Suggested production capacity:- 1m.t. of alumina/year, which requires 11.2 m.t. of limestone and 5 m.t. of kaolin. The raw material reserves should run the plant for about 40 years.
Suggested site for the plant:- Akashat (Anbar) where the limestone deposit is located and many infrastructures are available.
Economic feasibility:- High in view of the availability of low prices mineral raw material, easy mining, marketable by-product (clinker) and market demand; local and export (refractories,alum, and Al-industry). The present price of smelter grade alumina is about 400 US $ (Fob). The bi-product (clinker) can be used to produce Portland cement. Sodium carbonate can be recovered and water can be recycled.
3. Production of Na-sulfate
Raw material: Glauberite (Na 2 Ca(SO 4 ) 2 ) deposits in Shari Saltern, Salahuldin Governorate.
Reserves: More than 20 m.t. of glauberite have been proved in the Shari Saltern.
Process: Recovery of the glauberite crystals by washing with water over a screen, dissolution of galuberite with water, selective precipitation of Na-sulfate (temperature-controlled), drying (tested for 10 years by pilot plant production).
Production capacity: tons/year (suggested considering local demand).
Plant location: At the saltern site connected by a paved road to Sammara and Al- Dor Cities. H. T. electricity line is available.
Economic feasibility: High in view of increasing local demand in glass and detergents industries. Export potential is high to neighboring countries.
4. Production of Na-carbonate
Raw material: Limestone and salt (NaCl).
Limestone: Swab deposit (Anbar), White, pure limestone, m. (average 20 m.) thick exposed on surface, with the following specifications (wt. %):- Alternatives: Ghadari or Fadwa limestone deposits with about 50% CaO content (Muthana Governorate).
NaCl: Albu-Gharis saltern (Anbar) About 10 m.t. of NaCl in the salt crust and in the brine with about t. of KCl (by-product). NaCl represents about 90% of the salts in the brine (salinity 340 gm/l). Alternative: Samawa Saltern (Muthana Governorate) with more than 97% NaCl
Reserves: Limestone: 500 m.t. (proved) in swab deposit and 50 m.t. (proved) in Ghadari & Fadwa deposits NaCl: 10 m.t. NaCl in the salt crust in addition to tons of KCl as by-product Samawa saltern produces tons NaCl annually.
Process: Solvay Process (CaCl 2 by product)
Production capacity: tons Na 2 CO 3 /year (suggested).
Suggested plant location: Akashat or Al- Qaim (Anbar Governorate) or Samawa (Muthana Governorate).
Economic feasibility: High in view of the local demand in chemical industries, as well as the export potential.
5. Production of feldspar concentrate
Raw material: Feldspathic friable sand (Najaf Governorate).
Reserves: 3 m.t. of raw feldspar-bearing sand is proved with 15-20% feldspar, 70-80% quartz and 5-10% rock fragments (reserves may be enlarged by further exploration).
Process: Seizing and froth floatation. Experimental tests proved 90% feldspar content in the concentrate and 70% weight recovery.
Production capacity: tons/year of feldspar concentrate
Suggested plant location: Najaf Governorate, by the deposit location.
Economic feasibility: High in view of the local market need in ceramic industries, as well as the increasing demand in many neighboring countries.
6.Silica sand for glass and silicon industries
Raw material: Silica-sand presently mined by Geosurv (Rutba area) with < 98% SiO 2 or silica- sand in Ga’ara area or in km 160 (Wadi Amij) region with < 95% SiO 2.
Reserves: 5 m.t. tons in the Rutba deposit, 300 m.t. in the Ga’ara deposits and 30 m.t. in the km 160 deposits.
Process: Many alternatives; the most conventional is wet screening ( µm). The grade may be enhanced to optical glass and silicon material standard specifications by further processing including acid washing and flotation.
Production capacity: tons/year, (processed silica-sand).