Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

M.Sc. in “Engineering Policy and Management of Tehnology” CENTER FOR INNOVATION, TECHNOLOGY AND POLICY RESEARCH, IN+ Instituto Superior Técnico, Technical.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "M.Sc. in “Engineering Policy and Management of Tehnology” CENTER FOR INNOVATION, TECHNOLOGY AND POLICY RESEARCH, IN+ Instituto Superior Técnico, Technical."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 M.Sc. in “Engineering Policy and Management of Tehnology” CENTER FOR INNOVATION, TECHNOLOGY AND POLICY RESEARCH, IN+ Instituto Superior Técnico, Technical University of Lisbon http://in3.dem.ist.utl.pt Innovation and the Dynamics of Technological Change: The case of Portugal Pedro Conceição and Manuel Heitor

3 QUESTION Which trends for science, technology and innovation policy, in a way to contribute for the challenges faced by engineering and technology to enhance innovation?

4 1. The CONTEXT: a CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 2.FACTS and RESULTS 3. HYPOTHESIS STRATEGIES, POLCIES and RECOMENDATIONS Reference Terms e Scenários Strategies and Policies...http://in3.dem.ist.utl.pt/et2000/ CONTENTS

5 The CONTEXT: uncertainty... Nathan Rosenberg (2001): “ uncertainty in the realms of both science and technology... have enormously important consequences and a main concern is how organisations and incentives migth be modified to accommodate these uncertainties.” Source: OECD(2001), “Social Sciences and Innovation” Chris Freeman (2001): “There is an irreducible uncertainty about future political, economic and market developments....,technological innovations may actually increase it, since they add to the dimensions of general business uncertainty, the dimension of technological uncertainty.” Source: SPRU (2001)

6 ...uncertainty: THE RESULT In a context of increased uncertainty and accelerated rate of technological change, for which knowledge and innovation are critical factors for social and economical development, the role of the university may be enhanced, but requires to be adapted! The scope:... the globalized “learning society”! Knowledge Institutions Learning Organisations Intellectual PropertyLearning Networks Source: Conceição, Lundvall and Heitor (2002)

7 1. The “new” economy: “the big boom” ????? 2.Technological change: accelerating 3.Social Dynamics: complexity and diversity 4. “Governance”: a new model! The CONTEXT OCDE: “FUTURES”, Hannover 2000 EC: “IPTS - Futures Report”, 2000

8 The structure of the “new” economy Agriculture Indústry Services Agriculture Indústry Services Industrial era Knowledge era I- Recession II- Growth Technology replaces employment Economy without employment Demand Deficit Technology creates new industries and opportunities Entrepreneurial economy Value creation

9 The importance of Technology in corporate development Case study: Innovation in Italy (Evangelista & Sirilli, 1997) The convergence of sectors is emerging, with the growing importance of technology in corporate development

10 1. The “new” economy: “the big boom” 2.Technological change: accelerating 3.Social Dynamics: complexity and diversity 4. “Governance”: a new model! The CONTEXT OCDE: “FUTURES”, Hannover 2000 EC: “IPTS - Futures Report”, 2000

11 Technological Change: materials, IPTS(1999) STEELS CAST IRON IRON COOPER ALLOY STEELS GLASSY METALS AL-LITHIUM ALLOYS DUAL PHASE STEELS MICROALLOYED STEELS BRONZE SKIN FIBRE GUMS RUBBER LIGHT ALLOYS SUPER ALLOYS TITANIUM ZINCONIUM ETC NEW SUPER ALLOYS DEVELOPMENT SLOW MOSTLY QUALITY CONTROL AND PROCESSING CONDUCTING POLYMERS HIGH TEMPERATURE POLYMERS HIGH MODULUS POLYMERS BAKELITE NYLON WOOD PAPER STONE FLINT POTTERT GLASS CEMENT REFRACTORIES PORTLAND CEMENT FUSED SILICA CERMETS EPOXIES POLYESTERS COMPOSITES POLYMERS METALS CERAMICS POLYMERS COMPOSITES CERAMICS METALS ALLOYS 10 000 BC5000 BC010001500 1800 19001940 1960 19801990200020102020 GOLD CERAMIC COMPOSITES COMPOSITES METAL-MATRIX SURFACE ENGINEERING RELATIVE IMPORTANCE SUPERCONDUCTORS TOUGH ENGINEERING CERAMICS KEVLAR BRICKS (with STRAW) IVORY 10000 BC 5000 BC 010001500180019001940196019801990200020102020

12 Technological Change: telecommunications

13 Technological Change: perspectives The Convergence: telecommunications and computers... The QUESTION : scope and scale PRODUCTS PRODUCT more technologies to produce each product more products produced from a given technology Source: von Tunzelmann (1999)) TECHNOLOGIES PROCESSES TECHNOLOGY PROCESSES

14 New reactors Nuclear fusion New energy biomassPhotovoltaic materials Fuel cells Superconductors Supervision of energy processes Robotics Security systems energy Batteries Pacemakers Artificial Heart Recombin. DNA New drugs Enzymatic Synthesis Membranes Biocompatible materials Instrumental analysis of dna sequences biotechnologies Power lasersBio-leaching Biological ore processing New alloys Ceramics and composits Computer based design of new materials materials Photovoltaic applications Biosensors Biochips Semiconductors Superconductors Telematics Automation Computers information technologies energybiotechnologiesmaterialsinformation technologies Technological Change: Emerging interactions... from to

15 Technological Change: impact...1 1. Knowledge Diffusion 2. Knowledge Creation corporate competitiveness depends on innovation capacity globalization has increased market demand on nre products, processes and services Increasing interdisciplinarity and complexity of the knowledge base Significant contribution of technology for scientific development QUESTION: inovation/ adoption of new technologies? QUESTION: Which, and how to develop the scientific base? 3. Knowledge Transfer the need to promote systems of education and training diversified QUESTION: Which education and training systems?

16 Entrepreneurial capacity : NTBF Socio-economic inequality: –The need to promote local systems of knowledge creation and diffusion Technological Change: impact...2 A strategic vision: developing technology platforms enphasizing clusters (the corporate value chain) ca de vlor....to promote SOCIAL CAPITAL in a technology context Knowledge Diffusion…

17 PROCESSES:complex and diversified INVESTMENT:education; R&D; learning-by-doing AGENTS:state, firms, universities, schools What we know… Creation and distribution of knowledge Economic growth and development Technological innovation and development

18 What we know… “The Chain Link Model” Chain Linked Model of Innovation Potential Markets Invention/ analytical design Detailed design & Test Re-design & Production Distribution & market Knowledge Research Kline & Rosenberg Technology platforms BUS “Communities of practice”

19 1. The CONTEXT: a CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 2.FACTS and RESULTS 3. HYPOTHESIS STRATEGIES, POLCIES and RECOMENDATIONS Reference Terms e Scenários Strategies and Policies...http://in3.dem.ist.utl.pt/et2000/ CONTENTS

20 Innovation in EU source: Community Innovation Survey, OCT-PT

21 Facts and Results 1.Productivity 2.The knowledge-based industries 3.Resouces 4.Scale vs intensity 5.Structure of S&T System 6.Industrial structure 7.Institutional development 8.The regional dimension 9.Sustainable development 10.Social capital for the inclusive development

22 1. Productivity

23 2. Knowledge-based industries OECD(2000) Share in business sector value added in knowledge business industries (share year 1996) Average annual real value added growth of knowledge based industries (1985 share year)

24 3. RESOURCES Expenditure by Manufacturing Firms on Innovation

25 Perspectives for “change”: Public vs private R&D expenditures P97 P95 P81 ES IR SE JP USA FR D UK

26 … perspectives for “Change”: Growth of Public and Private expenditure on R&D OECD, S&T databases, October 2001

27 4. Scale vs Intensity R&D Expenditure (OECD)

28 … perspectives for “Change”: Scientific “Productivity” and inter-institutional cooperation EC Benchmark of S&T Policies, September 2001

29 5. Structure of S&T system: Share of R&D funding (OECD) OECD, S&T Databases, Sept. 2001 Industry-dominated systems Balanced Industry+ /government systems Balanced Industry/government+ systems Government-dominated systems

30 Share of R&D expenditure (OECD) OECD, S&T Databases, Sept. 2001 Industry-dominated systems Balanced industry/government systems with universities being more important performers than public research institutions Government-dominated systems Balanced industry/government systems with public research institutions being more important performers than universities

31 Share of R&D funding and expenditure (OECD) OECD, S&T Databases, Sept. 2001 Portugal USA Spain Irland Hungary Netherlands

32 American Universities: distinctive features Nathan Rosenberg (2001) 1. Decentralized and intensely competitive with one another High fund competition, in contrast with the european practice of universities being the recipients of block grants from the Ministry of Education 2. A large private university sector An important reality for state universities, preventing them from falling into a civil service mode, and promoting an highly competitive job market, favouring mobility! 3. Fast response on curriculum innovation New course material to compete for higher tuition fees (e.g., statistics in North Caroline and Iowa vs british universities)

33 The historical evidence: intensity of R&D support in US Conceição, Heitor and Oliveira(2001) federal Private

34 The historical evidence: cumulative R&D support in US Conceição, Heitor and Oliveira(2001) Private federal

35 Property Patronage Public Provision A serious threat: “the tragedy of the commons”...Paul David (2000) ill-considered public support for expanding legal means of controlling access to information for the purpose of extracting private economic rents is resulting in the “over-fencing of the public knowledge commons” in science and engineering The need for open, collaborative research...

36 6. THE INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE Food, beverages & tobacco Textiles, apparel & leather Wood products & furniture Paper, paper products & printing Chemical products Non-metallic mineral products Basic metal industries Fabricated metal products Other manufacturing, nec EU-13 YEAR Portugal

37 6. Industrial structure: Dynamics

38 7. Institutional Development Market Regulation and Employment Protection Nicoletti, Scarpetta & Boylaud; OECD (2000)

39 8. The regional dimension: technology and innovation gap 1. Input: HUMAN AND MATERIAL RESOURCES 2. output: SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL CAPACITIES 3. determining factors : international cooperation sme`s: support services networks FDI: integration in local economies transports, communications, energy infrastructures … BUT, ALSO, INSTITUTIONAL FACTORS

40 Regional diversity in Western Europe Source: Sixth Periodic Report DG XVI, 1998

41 “Master Equation” Environmental Impacte = (Population)*(GDP/Capita)*(Environmental Impacte /GDP) Increased eco- efficiency Promoting engineering and technolgy for innovation! 9. The sustainable development innovation and the environment

42 DMI, Direct Material Input per capita (1988-1995) Source : EEA, 2000, Environmental Signals for 2000 9. The sustainable development innovation and the environment Economic growth in Portugal is associated with the highest european growth rate of materials consuption!

43 10. Social capital for inclusive development OECD(2000)

44 1. The CONTEXT: a CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 2.FACTS and RESULTS 3. HYPOTHESIS STRATEGIES, POLCIES and RECOMENDATIONS Reference Terms e Scenários Strategies and Policies...http://in3.dem.ist.utl.pt/et2000/ CONTENTS

45 Perspectives for “change” The notion of localised technological change: The science base: a joint process of production, learning and communication a fully endogenous, with strong interdependence between specialisation and diversification important, but limited role of demand based on mix of generic and tacit knowledge ” …the aim of policy should be to create a broad and productive science base, closely linked to higher education…”, Pavitt (1998) … Systems of Innovation and Competence Building!

46 THE ISSUE …1 The evidence: “The major source of economic growth in developed countries has been science-based technology”, Kuznets (1966) “The explosion in knowledge creation was concentrated in a few regions, and led to similarly concentrated distribution of income”, World Bank (1999) The most daunting problem is that of “spiritual inequality”, Fogel (1999)

47 Regional diversity in Western Europe Source: Sixth Periodic Report DG XVI, 1998

48 A fragmented regional innovation system: an institutionally blocked regional economy Regional Government Business Services SMEs Chamber of Commerce SMEs Large firms SMEs Universities Technology Centers Sectoral Associations SMEs Large firms SMEs Technology Consultants SMEs Large firms SMEs Regional economy

49 A learning region : An efficient regional innovation system Regional government Business services & tech. con- sultants SMEs Business intermediaries: Cham. of Comm.; Local Agencies BICs SMEs Large firms; Tech. Centers; Sect. Associa- tions SMEs Cluster Science base: Universities; Public R&D; Laboratories Technology Centers Sectoral Associations SMEs Large firms SMEs Valorisation of R&D and Tech. Transfer Office SMEs Global economy SMEs Open gate: International technology transfer networks Open gate: International value chains Open gate: International business consultants & specialized business services Open gate: International R&D/academic excellence networks SMEs Regional economy

50 Regional Innovation Strategies Landabaso et al. (1999) – Internal coherence of the regional innovation system by connecting its different key elements: R&TDI supply with well identified Demand and business needs, from SMEs in particular. –Increase the amount and, more importantly the quality of innovation public spending through innovation projects (bigger and better spending in this field through regional policy). – Rationalise the regional innovation support system by raising awareness, eliminating duplications, filling gaps and promoting synergies. Successful stories: The Regional Technology Plans Wales (UK), Limburg (Netherlands), Lorraine (France) and Leipzig-Halle- Dessau (Germany), Central Macedonia (Greece), Castilla Y Leon (Spain) and Abruzzo (Italy).

51 What type of Social Capital ? Source: Conceicão, Gibson, Heitor & Sirilli (2000)

52 THE ISSUE …2 A specific issue: EUROPEAN DIVERSITY “ With some notable exceptions, the regional developmment debate in Europe has been dominated by exogeneous models to such an extent that development tends to be conceived as something that is introduced to, or visited upon, less favoured regions, LFRs, from external doors… …this kind of regional policy did little or nothing to stimulate localised learning, innovation and indigeneous development within LFRs”, Henderson & Morgan (1999)

53 technology and innovation gap …cont. Most development programmes stand on their ability to build “social capital”: a relational infrastructure for collective action This requires a shift in development studies: from state-led or market-driven processes, regardless time, space or milieu to institutional perspective, looking at the quality of institutional networks

54 technology and innovation gap …cont. INSTITUTIONAL NETWORKS to mediate: mediate information exchange knowledge creation capacity for collective action potential for interactive learning efficacy of voice mechanisms Henderson & Morgan (1999)

55 Which policies to foster innovation? Some critical aspects... 3. Fostering Entrepreneurship 1. Policy integration and action diversification - the need for diversified systems at national AND european levels - the structural role of research: to be selective on R&D and R&Teaching; to be comprehensive on R&Learning 2. Promoting Openness - a new governance model, externally rulled - fostering patnerships for innovation - integrate new competences, foster mobility, avoid inbreeding

56 Fostering partnerships which promote the integration of policies, but also the diversification of actions: – Funding the quality of supply: knowledge production – Promoting new markets: knowledge diffusion Partnerships for Innovation: Some critical strategies but also: people: new competences scope: national and/or international a critical role for MEGT`s requires: time: long-term perspectives context: specific sectorial and/or regional issues value: promoting market strategies through “CLUSTERS”

57 ediaries (e.g. Fraunhofer in Germany) Public seed capital funds (e.g. I-Source in France) Government policy incubators, science parks, clusters, intermediaries Conferences, expos & specialised media Informal contacts within professional networks Flow of graduates to industry Co-publications Mobility of researchers Joint labs Spin-offs Licensing Research contracts Co-operative Research Centres (e.g. CRCs in Australia) Formal mechanisms for Industry-Science Relationships: the tip of an iceberg

58 Promoting a System of Innovation and Competence Building: … with diversified partnerships Chain Linked Model of Innovation Kline & Rosenberg Technology platforms Potential Markets Invention/ analytical design Detailed design & Test Re-design & Production Distribution & market Knowledge Research Research Agendas Thematic Mobilization Programmes Networks of Scientific Cooperation Knowledge diffusion Post-Grad Training Individual Mobility NTBF´s

59 CONTENTS SERVICES E-TAILERS “THE INTERNET” ALTERNATIVE MEDIA E-CHANNELS ACCESS PROVIDERS INTERNET SERVICES Software Solutions Enabling Technologies CONSUMER BUSINESS Develop software solutions Designed to enhance the Internet experience for both Consumers and business Create hardware/software solutions which enable the efficient operation of the internet Building Social capital in technology contexts: a case study – the internet industry

60 Business/Customer Support On-line Products and Services Traditional Corporations Content Services THE GLOBE.COM THE MOTLEY FOOL BROADCAST.COM MPATH MONSTER.COM NETCENTIVES Alternative Media ESPN CNN Wall St. Journal YAHOO MSN EARTHWEB VERTICALNET BABY CENTER DELL BARNES & NOBLE CHARLES SCHWAB CITIBANK MACY’S E- CHANNELS AMAZON.C OM E*TRADE BEYOND.C OM EBAY BUY.COM E-tailers Access Providers EARTHLINK MINDSPRING AOL EXCITE @HOME VERIO COMPUSERVE NETCOM Service Providers AT&T WorldNet Ameritech DOUBLECLICK USWEB/CKS IXL MEDIA TRIX RAZORFISH ABOVENET Software solutions NetObjects Real Networks Egain Netscape Marimba Inktomi Sitara Networks Resonate Networks Associates WebOrder Vignette Ariba IBM Cisco IOS Hewlett-Packard Sun Cisco Lucent/Ascend Nortel/Bay Networks Nexabit Netopia Broadcom Verifone Enabling Technologies Technological Innovation a case study: internet business model Source: joint Venture – Sillicon Valley Network, 1999

61 Building Social capital in technology contexts: a case study - internet clustering It is unlikely that technological clusters aimed at supporting service integration will emerge, unless incentives exist to integrate elements in the value chain... Hawkins (1997) Continuous evolution to a “new” value chain The need to extend the analysis to the context : -communities of users -Regional/local context Internet business models: creative destruction, as usual !! (McKnigth et al, 2000)

62 TALENT Management Engineering Programming Marketing Universities Talent Research Networks SUPPORT SERVICES High-Tech Lawyers/ Accountants Incubators Industry Associations INVESTORS Venture and Angel Financing Network to Customers, Business, Partners And Talent PILLAR COMPANIES Capital Management Talent Technical Resources Business Partners ENTREPRENEURIAL CULTURE IDEAS INTERNET COMPANIES Building CONTEXT: the importance of LOCATION in a virtual medium

63 The need to consider engineering research and teaching in a broader context, leading to innovation: –Promoting value, by exploiting change –Understanding institutional development –Integrating systems of competence building and social cohesion The ISSUE... concluding OUR GOAL: to discuss the emergence of a university agenda on engineering policy and the management of technology

64 POLICY ISSUES THE CONTEXT: increase importance of knowledge for development THE CHALLENGE: how to promote the learning society? Towards an Agenda for innovation and technology policy: 1. the framework: interactive nature of innovation 2. balancing innovation and diffusion 3. wetware/software interaction 4. the inclusive development 5. the institutional development

65 advanced education and research in engineering policy and management of technology... Which relevant topics? 1.Advanced Research Methods for decision support and policy analisis 2.Management of technology and innovation 3.Organizational design and institutional development 4.Technology policy (environment; industrial; communications)

66 … debate … challenges and opportunities for a University Agenda on: Engineering Policy and the Management of Technology !


Download ppt "M.Sc. in “Engineering Policy and Management of Tehnology” CENTER FOR INNOVATION, TECHNOLOGY AND POLICY RESEARCH, IN+ Instituto Superior Técnico, Technical."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google