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Native Americans Multicultural and Urban Education Group Project.

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1 Native Americans Multicultural and Urban Education Group Project

2 Where did Native Americans come from? Native Americans are the indigenous people of the Americas. When and how they arrived on the continent is debatable. The most common theory, the New World Model, says they migrated from Eurasia via the Bering Straight 9,000 to 50,000 years ago!

3 Native Americans in Oregon There are 16 tribes that are federally recognized in Oregon: Tillamook, Alsea, Siuslaw, Coos, Chinook, Clatskani, Coquille, Takelma, Shoshone, Molalla, Cayuse, Kalapulyan, Sahaptin, Northern Paiute, Shasta, and Klamath. Portland is located on land that the Chinook Tribe resided on.

4 Where Native Americans and Alaskan Natives Attend School PORTLAND PUBLIC SCHOOLS 46,0467641.7% BEAVERTON37, 6135761.5% GRESHAM- BARLOW 11, 8721541.3% DistrictTotal Enrollment Native American/ Alaskan Native Students Total Percentage 2008 Enrollment Across Districts ***

5 Within Portland Public Schools… Type of Schooling # of Native American/ Alaskan Native Students Percentage Of Program or School ELEMENTARY 3881.5% MIDDLE SCHOOL 811.5% HIGH SCHOOL 1521.4% ALTERNATIVE 372.3% COMMUNITY- BASED ALTERNATIVES 786.1% SPECIAL PROGRAMS 163.1% CHARTER 121% Native Montessori Program (80%) and the NAYA Early College Academy (47%) are the programs with the highest enrollment percentage of Native/Alaskan Native students 8 schools (with an enrollment of 350- 867) have zero to two Native/Alaskan Native students Community-Based Alternative programs are “for students whose academic and social needs are not being met effectively in the traditional school setting” Resources: %20BSD%20Annual%20Survey%20Summary%20Report.pdf %20BSD%20Annual%20Survey%20Summary%20Report.pdf ml

6 The Law (a) PURPOSE- It is the purpose of this part to support the efforts of local educational agencies, Indian tribes and organizations, postsecondary institutions, and other entities to meet the unique educational and culturally related academic needs of American Indian and Alaska Native students, so that such students can meet the same challenging State student academic achievement standards as all other students are expected to meet. 20USC § 7402(a) Title VII of the No Child Left Behind Act 20 USC § 6319 et seq. provides the basis for Indian Education Programs. “Title VII”

7 Portland Public Schools Portland's Title VII Project is focused on three major areas: 1. Improved academic achievement 2. Increased student retention 3. Increased Native cultural awareness/connections The purpose of the Portland Public Schools Title VII Indian Education Act Project is to improve the academic success of American Indian/Alaska Natives through supplemental services that support the culturally related learning needs of project enrolled children and youth.

8 Portland Public Schools In an effort to increase Native cultural awareness/connections Portland Public Schools “provides cultural education to connect students with their Native history, cultures and traditions, instilling pride and confidence to achieve challenging academic standards.”

9 Portland Public Schools All Project enrolled students are offered the following services: Basic school supplies Resource and referral Advocacy/intervention Student incentives Summer programs Native cultural opportunities, awareness and cultural activities Family literacy Native Montessori Program Early Childhood information

10 What are they?: “Baseline Essays are reference volumes each consisting of six or seven individual essays written in traditional subject-matter areas. Together, the Essays document the history, culture(s) and contributions of a specific geocultural group.” A Baseline Essay was planned to have the following characteristics: Information should be truthful, informative for all, and uplifting for the subject cultural group. Content should include a brief survey of the history, culture(s) and contributions of a geocultural group. Voices and perspective(s) of the people whose antecedents originally come from the continent (or tied to the continent by culture or heritage) should be reflected in the document. References should support information presented in the Baseline Essay, though it is important to remember an essay is not a research paper or book. American Indian Baseline Essays

11 The Native American Youth and Family Center in Portland received a $272,000 Demonstration Grant Award this year from the Office of Indian Education to: “implement a College Readiness through Assessment and Enrichment Interventions project. The project will identify and serve the underserved native student population in the Portland metropolitan area high schools to provide enrichment intervention strategies, assessment and instruction in mathematics and science, and ACT and PSAT tutoring and preparation. This project will also conduct a city-wide Native College Fair to encourage and promote more native students to transition to post secondary education. Number of participants: 70” Portland Public Schools

12 Washington County “Title VII” administered by the Northwest Regional Educational Service District (NWRESD) NWRESD’s mission mirrors the policy statement at the beginning of Title VII of NCBL The purpose of the Program is to increase the number of AI/AN students successfully completing high school and pursuing higher education. This year the focus is on (1) attendance, (2) academic performance, (3) ACT or SAT preparation and testing, and (4) career and/or college guidance including participation in enrichment and volunteer opportunities.

13 Washington County Perspective Indian Education Programs – Title VII – exist not because of race or ethnicity. They are based on the trust relationship of Tribal nations with the U. S. federal government. According to the National Indian Education Association, it summarizes the development of this relationship: “In exchange for Indian land and trade concessions, the U.S. assumed a protective role that developed into a ‘trust relationship.’ Trust is generally defined as ‘the unique legal and moral duty of the United States to assist Indians in the protection of their property and rights.’ Trust has as its primary purpose the continued survival of Indian tribes and their governments. The trust relationship existing between the federal government and Indian tribes governs that special, unique relationship between the United States government and Indian nations.” Based on this trust relationship, Indian Education Program – Title VII – is included in No Child Left Behind. As described by the Office of Indian Education, “The No Child Left Behind Act amends the Indian education programs as Title VII, Part A of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act.

14 The Native American Perspective From the first attempts at educating American Indians, the goal has been to change them. Every attempt at changing the American Indian and, now, the Alaska Native has met with failure or minimal success. Indian education policies have historically had two thrusts: isolation and assimilation. Federal policy toward American Indians and Alaska Natives has historically forced assimilation for the purpose of divesting Indians of their land and resources. From the beginning, the curriculum in Indian schools offered no Indian languages, culture, or history.

15 Coercive Assimilation The coercive assimilation policy has had disastrous effects on the education of Indian children. It has resulted in: 1. The classroom and the school system becoming a sort of battleground in which the Indian child attempts to protect his integrity and identity as an individual by defeating the purposes of the school. 2. Schools that fail to understand or adapt, and-in fact-often denigrate cultural differences. 3. Schools that blame their own failures on Indian students and reinforce their defensiveness. 4. Schools that fail to recognize the importance and validity of the Indian community, causing both the community and its children to retaliate by treating the school as an alien institution. 5. A dismal record of much absenteeism, many dropouts, negative self- image, low achievement, and, ultimately, academic failure for many Indian children. 6. A perpetuation of the cycle of poverty, which undermines the success of all other federal programs.

16 Native American – Community The Declaration of Independence describes Native Americans as the following: ‘… merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions’ How can their be any equality between us if our country’s foundation is based on these words?

17 Justice for All (except Indians) By 1969 over 400 treaties signed between the United States and Native Americans had been broken. Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831) – Cherokees win the Georgia fight of their removal based on Indian Removal Act passed by congress and signed by President Jackson in 1830. President and state of Georgia ignored Supreme Court and removal process continued. How Can Native American trust anything the Federal or State Governments say? What choices do they have?

18 Treaty Engagement…. Asks Wilkinson: How could the Indians possibly know the transcendent meaning of what they were signing? One interpreter at Medicine Creek, asked by Stevens whether he could get the Indians to sign, assured the governor, "I can get these Indians to sign their death warrant.“ The treaties might have been that for the Indians had it not been for a clause in each of them guaranteeing tribes the right to fish "... at all usual and accustomed grounds and stations.“ Stevens had no qualms about Indian fishing. Fish and game were abundant to the point of seeming limitless. What did it matter? If anything was to become extinct, it would be the Indians themselves.

19 A Win for Native Americans Boldt Decision (1974): One of the most-significant decisions in the history of Indian law. But the Boldt decision reverberated throughout Indian country because, in symbol, it had less to do with allocation of fish than with allocation of power. It elevated tribal treaties to at least the level of state law, and gave Indians a new political status. Boldt was a great boost in the direction of tribes ruling themselves. It coincided with a Nixon-era infusion of federal money intended to strengthen tribal governments. The result has been both a political and economic awakening, seen in arenas as divergent as tribal casino resorts in Connecticut, tribal police powers in New Mexico and online tribal lotteries in Idaho.

20 Examples of positive change for Native Americans stemming from the Boldt Decision: In Washington, the Muckleshoot tribe held up a city of Tacoma plan to build a pipeline along the Green River, ancestral fishing grounds. The project went through but only after Tacoma agreed to pay the tribe $20 million, build a tribal fish hatchery and hand over 100 acres. In Utah, the Goshute Indians, over the objections of its non-Indian neighbors, plan to lease part of their reservation for nuclear-waste storage. In New Mexico, the city of Albuquerque has agreed to spend $300 million on cleaning up the Rio Grande River to meet the water- quality requirements of the Isleta Pueblo, which manages part of the watershed. Video:

21 The Native American Community 21.7 of 1000 American Indian and Alaska Native children were the victims of child maltreatment in 2002, compared with 20.2 of 1000 African American children and 10.7 of 1000 white children Age-adjusted death rate for adults exceeds that of the general population by almost 40%, with deaths due to diabetes, chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, and accidents occurring at least three times the national rate Rates of inadequate prenatal care and post-neonatal death among American Indian and Alaska Native infants that were two to three times those of white infants American Indian and Alaska Native children are twice as likely to be overweight and three times as likely to be obese, with rates of both growing by 4% since the mid-1990s A U.S. Commission on Civil Rights report documented that the IHS is so severely underfunded that it spends just $1914 per patient per year compared with twice that amount ($3803) that is spent on a federal prisoner in a year. Native people have lower labor force participation rates than those of the general population as high as 35% in some reservation communities Poverty and unemployment observed in American Indian and Alaska Native communities is related to broader economic development challenges in American Indian and Alaska Native communities, including geographic isolation and the availability of largely low-wage jobs. 35 - 60% High School Drop-out rate well above national average /

22 Barriers for Modern Day Native Americans 1. Outside of the “culture of power.” – Delpit tells us we must teach the codes of the “culture of power,” but also accept diverse students as they are: – “The answer is to accept students but also to take responsibility to teach them” (38).

23 Barriers for Modern Day Native Americans 2. Different style of oral communication Highly skilled in story telling, and “saying a great deal with a few words” (57). Many NA communities prohibit speaking for someone else– students can appear to not understand text Speech pattern: NA take long speech turns and expect to not be interrupted

24 Barriers for Modern Day Native Americans 3. Stereotyping The “Nonverbal Indian child” – NA students will give short/no answers when called on in class or asked inappropriate questions – Because of this, teachers stop calling on them and they become “invisible.” – NA students operate best in small groups Native Americans are “very diverse in cultural traditions, physical appearance, religion, and lifestyle” (Nieto, 159).

25 Fern Sherman Case Study 1.The only NA at her school 2.“This isn’t done in my culture” Cut-off by teacher 3.Correcting teachers in history class 4.NA children are taught to succeed “for one’s family, Nation, or community,” not for ones self (165). 5.Succeeded because of the support of her father, and the high expectations of her teacher

26 Other Issues… 1.Highest drop-out rate: 30% 2.Unemployment: 50% 3.High suicide rates 4.Inadequate health care 5.Higher infant mortality rate than the national average 6.Widespread nutritional deficiencies 7.Alcoholism affects the lives of more than 60% of NA children --- Nieto, page 166

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