Presentation on theme: "Student Laboratory Kit Introductory Presentation President’s Council of Student Advisors."— Presentation transcript:
Student Laboratory Kit Introductory Presentation President’s Council of Student Advisors
Presentation Overview What is Materials Science ◦Ceramics ◦Metals ◦Polymers ◦Composites What Does this Kit Provide Items Included in the Kit Important Lab Information Introductory/Supplemental Information for Each Lab Lesson PCSA Website Information References Acknowledgments
What is Materials Science Materials science is the study of solid matter ◦Investigating the relationship between the atomic or molecular structure of a material and its micro- and macroscopic properties ◦Examining and understanding what influences the properties of a material so that the right material can be selected for a particular application A material will typically fall into one of four classes: ◦Ceramics ◦Metals ◦Polymers ◦Composites Metals Ceramics Polymers Composites
What is a ceramic? ◦Inorganic, nonmetallic solid created through heating and then cooling What are some unique properties of ceramics? ◦Ceramics are generally brittle, hard, and strong in compression, but not other types of loading ◦They are generally better at withstanding corrosive environments and high temperatures What are some common ceramic materials? ◦Silica (sand) ◦Alumina ◦CorningWare ® ◦Porcelain What is Materials Science Ceramics Alumina labware Ceramic coffee mugsPorcelain vase CorningWare ®
What is Materials Science Metals What is a metal? ◦Elements or compounds that have good electrical and thermal conductivity What are some unique properties of metals? ◦Metals are metallically bonded, and therefore their outer electrons can easily be removed ◦They are generally malleable and ductile, and have higher densities than nonmetals What are some common metal materials? ◦Elements: iron, copper, gold, silver, tin ◦Alloys: steel, nitinol Metal bridge supports Metal tools
What is a polymer? ◦Chemical compound with a structure of many repeating sub-units, often called monomers What are some unique properties of polymers? ◦They tend to form glasses and semi-crystalline structures rather than crystalline structures ◦Polymers are strong, flexible, non-reactive, and moldable What are some common polymer materials? ◦Polvinyl chloride (PVC) ◦Wool ◦Shellac ◦Rubber ◦Nylon What is Materials Science Polymers PVC PipeWoolShellac
What is a composite? ◦A material created from the combination of 2 or more different materials What are some unique properties of composites? ◦Composites exhibit characteristics different from the characteristics of the individual materials included ◦Properties can be tailored for a specific application by changing the amounts of individual materials included What is Materials Science Composites ++= + Portland cementWater Fine aggregate: Sand Coarse aggregate: Gravel Concrete
What is Materials Science Composites What are some common composites? ◦Concrete Most widely used man-made material Composed of Portland cement, water, and aggregate ◦Wood Natural composite made of cellulose fiber ‘cells’ that are held together with a natural glue called lignin ◦Tires Composed of rubber and one or more types of fibers Rubber holds the air inside while the fibers withstand the stresses imposed on the tire as the car is being driven Concrete Wood Tires
What Does this Kit Provide An introduction to materials science through hands-on student labs ◦Glass Bead on a Wire: ceramics lab that demonstrates glass can be a ‘phase of matter’ rather than a particular material and examines the ability of glasses to absorb other ions during thermal treatments ◦Engineered Concrete – How Would You Design a Composite?: composites lab that demonstrates the influence of preparation (design) on the final composite’s properties ◦Happy Ball / Sad Ball: polymer lab that demonstrates property dependence on temperature and material structure ◦Thermal Processing of Bobby Pins: metals lab that demonstrates the influence that thermal processing can have on the properties of a material ◦Chocolate Strength – How Strong is Your Chocolate?: general lab that demonstrates how material properties, such as microstructure, can influence the strength of a material
Items Included in the Kit 20’ copper wire (18 gauge) 20’ nichrome wire (20 gauge) 3 Neoprene ® balls (Happy ball) 3 Norsorex ® balls (Sad ball) 10 plastic measuring spoons 1 mass balance ( g limit) 5 plastic cups with twine 1 package of bobby pins 5 c-clamps Flash drive containing all of the lesson documents Copper wireMeasuring spoonsBobby pinsCup with twine Nichrome wireC-clamp Happy/Sad balls Flash drive Balance
Important Lab Information The labs in this kit have been designed to be performed by small groups of students ◦The recommended group size can be found on the first slide for each lab in this presentation The materials list included in the Teacher Instructions for each lab is designed for a class of 20 students ◦You may need to modify the instructions and materials list if you have more than 20 students in your class Feel free to modify any of the lesson documents to meet your classroom’s needs!
Important Lab Information For each lab, some items are provided in the kit and some will need to be purchased ◦Items that must be purchased should be commonly available at a grocery or hardware store and were not included in the kit due to shipping issues or the need to replace these items after every lab For each lab, several documents are provided on the included flash drive: ◦Teacher Instructions ◦Teacher Discussion Questions ◦Student Lab Handout ◦Student Questions Handout
The remainder of the presentation will focus on introductory/supplementary information for each lab
Glass Bead on a Wire The student lab documents were written for groups of 2 students, materials included in the kit are enough for 10 groups Materials included in the kit ◦20ft Copper wire ◦20ft Nichrome wire Materials not included in the kit ◦Borax ◦Bunsen burner ◦Pliers/tongs/corks ◦Heat-resistant container ◦Plastic baggies (optional) Powdered Borax Bunsen Burner Heat-resistant container Copper wire Nichrome wire
Glass Bead on a Wire Objective of this lab ◦To demonstrate that glass can be a ‘phase of matter’ rather than a particular material and to examine the unique ability of glasses to absorb other ions during thermal treatments Background Information ◦Glasses are amorphous solids No long-range order of atoms Crystalline structure Amorphous structure
Glass Bead on a Wire Background Information, continued ◦Upon heating to a certain temperature, glasses have the ability to incorporate metal ions and additional oxygen ions into their atomic structure The level of oxygen and type of metal ion gives glass its ‘color’ ◦For some materials, glass is a ‘phase of matter’ rather than an actual material Borax and quartz sand will transition from a crystalline structure to an amorphous structure (glass) upon heating to a certain temperature Quartz sand is the main raw material used in the glasses we see every day (drinking glasses, windows, etc.) Quartz sand
Glass Bead on a Wire Lab Description ◦Borax bead test Popular method for determining the presence of certain metals A hot metal wire loop is dipped into powdered Borax and heated again Borax undergoes a crystalline to amorphous transition during heating to form a ‘bead’ on the wire Color of the bead is dependent on: ◦ The type of metal in the wire ◦ The amount of oxygen incorporated into the Borax atomic structure during heating Amount of oxygen added during heating can be controlled using different parts of a Bunsen flame Beads from a Borax bead test
Glass Bead on a Wire Lab Description, continued Bunsen burner flame Oxidizing region of flame (high amounts of oxygen) Reducing region of flame (low amounts of oxygen)
Glass Bead on a Wire Keyword Definitions ◦Amorphous: non-crystalline solid that lacks a long-range order of atoms ◦Oxidation: addition of oxygen to a material ◦Reduction: removal of oxygen from a material ◦Borax bead test: heat-induced transition of Borax from a crystalline state to an amorphous state that is typically used to test for the presence of certain metals ◦Water of crystallization: water that is incorporated in the crystalline structure of a material
Glass Bead on a Wire Real world applications Glass can be heated to a molten (liquid) state and molded into many different shapes, from vases to sheets of colored glass for ‘stained glass’ windows. Introduction of different ions during the heating process can yield glass in any desired color.
Glass Bead on a Wire Supplementary Information ◦Websites that provide additional information about the borax bead test, including other metals that can be used ◦Supplier for replacement copper and nichrome wire McMaster-Carr ◦ ◦ wire/=m8fut2 wire/=m8fut2
Engineered Concrete: How Would You Design a Composite? The student lab documents were written for groups of 3 students Materials included in the kit ◦10 Plastic measuring spoons ◦1 Mass balance Materials not included in the kit ◦Styrofoam bowls/PVC pipe molds ◦Portland cement ◦Permanent marker ◦Reinforcement materials ◦Sandwich bags (optional) ◦Latex/Non-latex gloves (optional) Portland cement Measuring spoons Balance ◦Popsicle sticks ◦Plastic wrap ◦Plastic cups ◦Duct tape ◦Vaseline ◦Q-tips
Engineered Concrete: How Would You Design a Composite? Objective of this lab ◦To demonstrate how preparation (design) of a material can affect the final material properties and to provide an introduction to composites Background Information ◦Composite materials exhibit characteristics different from the characteristics of the individual materials used to create the composite ◦Concrete is the most commonly used man-made composite (and one of the oldest) Composed of Portland cement, water, sand, and gravel Final material properties are dependent on how much of each individual material is used Roman concrete aqueduct Modern concrete bridge
Engineered Concrete: How Would You Design a Composite? Background Information, continued ◦Portland cement is a ceramic material that, when combined with water, forms the building block of concrete ◦Concrete goes through a curing process When water is mixed with Portland cement, it forms a bond with the cement particles and hardens into an intertwining matrix The sand (fine aggregate) and gravel (coarse aggregate) get trapped within this matrix and act as reinforcement to provide strength to the material ◦Concrete strength is dependent upon several factors Water to cement (w/c) ratio ◦ Need the right amount of water to react with the Portland cement Type of reinforcement added ◦ Sand vs. gravel vs. fibers vs. combination of several types Amount of reinforcement added
Engineered Concrete: How Would You Design a Composite? Background Information, continued ◦Influence of w/c ratio on thickness of puck w/c=0.25 (10 spoonfuls) w/c=0.37 (15 spoonfuls) w/c=0.49 (20 spoonfuls) w/c=0.61 (25 spoonfuls)
Engineered Concrete: How Would You Design a Composite? Background Information, continued ◦Pucks after dropping from a height of at least 15ft ◦Influence of w/c ratio – ‘average’ ratio of 0.49 exhibits best performance (majority of the puck still intact) w/c=0.25 (10 spoonfuls) w/c=0.37 (15 spoonfuls) w/c=0.49 (20 spoonfuls) w/c=0.61 (25 spoonfuls)
Engineered Concrete: How Would You Design a Composite? Lab Description ◦Experiment with various w/c ratios to determine the amount of water that should be added to a set amount of Portland cement and reinforcement to create a workable cement paste ◦Evaluate the influence of w/c ratio on the strength of a reinforced cement paste puck ◦Create a new mix design based on the results of the first round of pucks How much water should be added? How much reinforcement should be added? ◦Evaluate the second mix design in terms of strength of a reinforced cement paste puck
Engineered Concrete: How Would You Design a Composite? Keyword Definitions ◦Portland cement: fine powder composed primarily of ground clinker (mostly ground limestone) ◦Concrete: composite material composed of Portland cement, water, and aggregate ◦Composite: a material that is composed of 2 or more materials and has different properties from the original materials ◦Design: a plan for how to prepare a material or a method for combining the materials in a composite (% of each material that should be added, how to combine the materials, curing conditions, etc.) ◦Reinforcement: material that is typically added to another material to give it increased mechanical properties (e.g. addition of steel rebar or fibers to concrete)
Engineered Concrete: How Would You Design a Composite? Real world applications To strengthen the concrete in large structures such as the foundation of a wind turbine (shown here), a lattice frame of reinforcing steel bars (“rebar”) are set in place. The concrete will be poured around it to form a composite.
Engineered Concrete: How Would You Design a Composite? Supplementary Information ◦Suppliers for Type I or Type I/II Portland Cement Ace Hardware ◦ Home Depot ◦ d=- 1&keyword=portland+cement&storeId=10051&N=5yc1v&R= #.UWMEWzeyJrY d=- 1&keyword=portland+cement&storeId=10051&N=5yc1v&R= #.UWMEWzeyJrY Lowes ◦ _0__?productId= &Ntt=portland+cement&pl=1&curre ntURL=%3FNtt%3Dportland%2Bcement&facetInfo= _0__?productId= &Ntt=portland+cement&pl=1&curre ntURL=%3FNtt%3Dportland%2Bcement&facetInfo
Happy Ball/Sad Ball The student lab documents were written for groups of 4-8 students to rotate through 3 stations: ◦Room temperature station ◦Chilled temperature station ◦Heated temperature station Materials included in the kit ◦3 Neoprene ® balls (Happy) ◦3 Norsorex ® balls (Sad) ◦1 Mass balance Materials not included in the kit ◦6 Meter Sticks ◦Hotplate ◦Dry ice/liquid nitrogen (Optional) Happy/Sad balls ◦2 Pans ◦Tongs ◦Freezer ◦Salt ◦Water ◦Cup of ice
Happy Ball/Sad Ball Objective of this lab ◦To demonstrate the dependence of material properties on temperature and material structure by examining two polymers, which visually look identical but have different material structures Background Information ◦Developing an understanding of material properties is the first step in understanding why different materials are used for different applications ◦Many material properties cannot be determined just by visually examining a material ◦Two materials that look identical (such as the Happy/Sad balls) may exhibit very different material properties due to differences in the material structure
Happy Ball/Sad Ball Background Information, continued ◦Neoprene ® (Happy ball) Composed of polychloroprene Has a softer texture and bounces well Has high hysteresis ◦ When it is deformed, it immediately wants to return to its original condition Commonly used for swimsuits and wetsuits as it is very flexible, maintains its shape, and retains heat well ◦Norsorex ® (Sad ball) Composed of polynorbornene Does not bounce well Has low hysteresis ◦ When it is deformed, it has no desire to return to its original condition Commonly used for body armor as it has the ability to spread impact forces over a wide area Wetsuit Body Armor
Happy Ball/Sad Ball Keyword Definitions ◦Material property: characteristic attribute of a material which can measured in a meaningful way ◦Polymer: chemical compound with a structure of many repeating sub-units ◦Impact: a force applied over a short period of time when 2 or more bodies collide ◦Rebound: to bounce back after colliding with another body ◦Absorb: to receive an impact or vibration without rebound ◦Elasticity: ability of a material to deform when loaded and then return to its original shape upon unloading ◦Deform: to alter the original shape of a material, usually by pressure or stress ◦Friction: force that resists the motion of 2 materials sliding against each other
Happy Ball/Sad Ball Lab Description ◦Students will test the material properties of two seemingly identical polymer balls Comparisons of the mass, radius, density, and rebound of the balls at different temperature conditions will be made ◦Three stations will be set-up Room temperature Happy/Sad ball station Chilled temperature Happy/Sad ball station Heated temperature Happy/Sad ball station ◦Students will rotate through the stations performing the same set of experiments at each station to evaluate the influence of temperature on the material properties of the two balls
Happy Ball/Sad Ball Real world applications The polymers in a tennis ball and the racquet strings must be engineered to transfer as much energy as possible for the best performance. The plastic bumpers of cars are designed to absorb as much energy as possible so it is not transferred to the passengers. This helps prevent serious injuries during a head-on collision.
Thermal Processing of Bobby Pins The student lab documents were written for groups of 4 students Materials included in the kit ◦5 Plastic cups with twine ◦5 C-clamps ◦1 Package of bobby pins Materials not included in the kit ◦Bunsen burner ◦Pennies ◦Cup of cold water ◦Pliers/tongs/corks Cup with twine C-clamp Bobby pins Bunsen Burner
Thermal Processing of Bobby Pins Objective ◦To show the difference that processing, especially thermal processing, can have on the properties of a material Background Information ◦Thermal processing is used to change the microstructure of a material, and thus change its physical properties ◦Annealing weakens metals Makes them easier to form into desired shapes Involves heating a material above a critical temperature, maintaining that temperature, and then allowing the material to slowly cool ◦Quenching makes metals hard and brittle Process is the same as annealing except the material is rapidly cooled to room temperature Photomicrograph: Annealed steel Photomicrograph: Quenched steel
Thermal Processing of Bobby Pins Lab Description ◦The influence of thermal treatment on bobby pins will be examined A bobby pin will be annealed by heating with a Bunsen burner and slowly cooling A bobby pin will be quenched by heating with a Bunsen burner and quickly cooling by plunging the pin in a cup of cold water ◦The control bobby pin, annealed bobby pin, and quenched bobby pin will be subjected to an end flexural loading This type of loading is also referred to as a cantilevered beam loading ◦The deflections of each pin will be compared to determine the influence of thermal treatment on the mechanical properties of the metal
Thermal Processing of Bobby Pins Keyword Definitions ◦Thermal processing: using temperature changes to impact material properties ◦Annealing: heating a material and allowing it to cool slowly ◦Quenching: heating a material and forcing it to cool quickly ◦Strength: ability of a material to withstand applied stress without failure ◦Stiffness: ability of a material to withstand deformation (bending) ◦Elasticity: ability of a material to deform non-permanently without breaking ◦Plasticity: ability of a material to deform permanently without breaking ◦Ductility: ability of a material to deform under tensile stress
Thermal Processing of Bobby Pins Keyword Definitions, continued ◦Malleability: ability of a material to deform under compressive stress ◦Over-aging: having been annealed for too long, decreasing desired material properties ◦Deflection: amount of displacement experienced by a structural element (e.g. beam) under a load ◦Elastic Modulus: the tendency of a material to deform elastically (i.e. not permanently) ◦Microstructure: structure of a material as observed through microscopic examination ◦Grain: an individual crystal in a polycrystal ◦Dislocation: a defect or irregularity in the ordered arrangement of atoms in a material
Thermal Processing of Bobby Pins Real world applications Heat treatment is the most important factor in the processing of metal parts. High temperatures and slow cooling rates will allow large grains to form in the metal, which deform more easily than small grains. When making a hardened metal for a hammer, drill, or gear, the metal must be quenched to keep the grains small. Quenching can also “freeze in” a crystal structure that only otherwise exists at high temperature. Aircraft landing gear glowing red-hot about to be quenched in oil.
Chocolate Strength: How Strong is Your Chocolate? The lab documents were written for groups of 3-4 students Materials included in the kit ◦5 Plastic cups with twine ◦1 Mass balance Materials not included in the kit ◦Pennies ◦5 rulers ◦5 protective mats ◦Milk chocolate bars ◦Almond chocolate bars ◦Crisped rice chocolate bars Cup with twineBalance
Chocolate Strength: How Strong is Your Chocolate? Objective of this lab ◦To demonstrate how material properties, such as microstructure, can influence the strength of a material Background Information ◦The materials we use everyday are subjected to a variety of stresses and must be designed to provide a certain measure of strength ◦Engineers must understand how a material will respond to stresses in order to choose the right material for a particular application
Chocolate Strength: How Strong is Your Chocolate? Background Information, continued ◦Engineers use a variety of mechanical tests to evaluate the ability of a material to sustain stresses Compressive Testing Tensile Testing Flexural Testing
Chocolate Strength: How Strong is Your Chocolate? Background Information, continued ◦A material’s microstructure influences the strength of the material under various loadings ◦Sometimes microstructure can be altered due to processing Milk chocolate bars that have something added to them such as almonds, crisped rice, or air voids ◦It is important to understand how microstructural changes can affect the final properties of the material Will the changes produce a stronger material? A weaker material? A more durable material (even if it is weaker)?
Chocolate Strength: How Strong is Your Chocolate? Lab Description ◦Different types of chocolate bars will be tested to demonstrate the influence of different ‘microstructures’ on the strength of the bar ◦3-point bending test set-up will be utilized 3-point bending test set-up
Chocolate Strength: How Strong is Your Chocolate? Keyword Definitions ◦Mechanical properties: description of how a material behaves in response to applied forces ◦Stress: force applied per unit area ◦3-point bending test: standard test used to measure the flexural strength of a material ◦Microstructure: structure of a material as observed through microscopic examination
Chocolate Strength: How Strong is Your Chocolate? Impurities and other elements in your material can strengthen it (Engineered Concrete) OR weaken it (How Strong is Your Chocolate?). In most modern materials, the processing is so well- controlled that impurities are not a problem, and other materials are added on purpose to strengthen the material. An excess of sulfur and phosphorous in the steel of the Titanic is widely believed to have made it more susceptible to cracking. Real world applications The metal blades of a jet engine are mostly nickel but can have more than 10 other elements added to improve performance.
Chocolate Strength: How Strong is Your Chocolate? Supplementary Information 3-point bending test for a chocolate bar Example of a chocolate fracture surface
PCSA Website Information Additional information can be found on the PCSA website, including: ◦Teacher Demonstration kit available for purchase ◦FREE downloadable versions of the lesson documents for this kit and the Teacher Demonstration kit ◦FREE downloadable supplementary kit for use with liquid nitrogen ◦Videos demonstrating the labs and providing trouble shooting information (coming soon!) Check the website often for new information!
References Image References, continued ◦Glass bottle - ◦Glass sculpture - ◦Molten glass – ◦Glass vases - ◦Wetsuit – ◦Body armor - ◦Tennis racket hitting ball - ◦Crashed cars - using-brake-intervention/http://www.bmwblog.com/2010/05/26/world-premiere-new-bmw-5-series-passes-first-crash-test- using-brake-intervention/ ◦Portland cement bag – ◦Roman concrete aqueduct - ◦Modern concrete bridge - ◦Wind turbine foundation - ◦Photomicrograph of annealed and quenched steel - plates_11_and_14.jpg plates_11_and_14.jpg ◦Aircraft landing gear - ◦Compressive Testing – ◦Tensile Testing – ◦Flexural Testing – ◦Titanic picture – ◦Airplane jet - ◦All other images were taken by the PCSA
Acknowledgments Special thanks to the following companies and individuals, whose generous donations ensure the continued operation of the PCSA, which allows for projects such as this kit to come to fruition!* Advanced Cerametrics, Inc. (2013) Almatis, Inc. (2013) Association of American Ceramic Component Manufacturers (AACCM) (2010, 2011) ACerS Basic Science Division (2010) Ceramco Inc. (2010, 2012, 2013) Corning Incorporated (2010) Deltech, Inc. (2011, 2013) ACerS Electronics Division (2010) Fusion Ceramics Inc. (2013) ACerS Glass and Optical Materials Division (2010) Jain, Dilip (2010) Kyocera International, Inc. (2010) Marra, Jim and Sharon (2010) *Donors from 1/1/2010 through 9/27/2013
Acknowledgments Special thanks, continued* Mo-Sci Charitable Foundation (2011, 2012, 2013) Mo-Sci Corporation (2011, 2012, 2013) ACerS New Mexico Section (2010, 2012, 2013) ACerS Nuclear and Environmental Technology Division (2010) Ohio State University’s Center for Emergent Materials (2013) Okamura, Kiyohito (2010) ACerS Pacific Northwest Section (2012) Reldon & Hattie Cooper Charitable Fund (2010, 2011, 2012, 2013) Spahr, Charlie (2010, 2012) Superior Technical Ceramics (2012, 2013) Unifrax Corporation (2010) Zircoa, Inc. (2012) *Donors from 1/1/2010 through 9/27/2013
Acknowledgments The PCSA would also like to thank the following individuals for their valuable input and feedback in the creation of these lesson documents: Debbie Goodwin, ASM Master Teacher Andy Nydam, ASM Master Teacher Teacher attendees from the ASM Materials Camp ® Teachers Camps, June 24-28, 2013, and July 22 – 26, 2013, Columbus, Ohio D ISCLAIMER : ACerS’ President’s Council of Student Advisors (PCSA) provides this introductory presentation in an editable PowerPoint format so that teachers may adapt the document for their classroom needs. The PCSA encourages teachers to download and modify this document as needed for their own classroom and to provide this document to other teachers who are interested. As a result, you may not be reading an original version of the document. Original versions of the document may be downloaded from This disclaimer should be present in every version of the document that is shared among teachers.www.ceramics.org/pcsasciencekits
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