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Low Traffic Stress Bicycling Networks Peter G. Furth, Northeastern University.

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Presentation on theme: "Low Traffic Stress Bicycling Networks Peter G. Furth, Northeastern University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Low Traffic Stress Bicycling Networks Peter G. Furth, Northeastern University

2 What Is the “Bicycle Network” to an Individual? 1.Legal 2.Inventory 3.The set of streets and paths that don’t exceed his / her level of tolerance for traffic stress

3 Most of the Population has a Low Tolerance for Traffic Stress

4 Classifying the Population by Tolerance for Traffic Stress Interested but Concerned (60%) No Way, No How (33%) Strong & Fearless < 1% Enthused & Confident (7%) Source: Roger Geller, City of Portland Classifying Network Elements by Level of Traffic Stress (LTS) LTS 1: for children LTS 2: for traffic intolerant adult LTS 3: for “Enthused & Confident” LTS 4: highest stress

5 5 San Jose Street Network, All Levels of Stress

6 Distribution of Segment Miles by Level of Traffic Stress StressLevelMiles Miles (percent) Lowest % Low21153% Medium32768% High467820% Prohibited51344% Total %

7 7 Stress Level 3 or Less

8 8 Stress Level 2 or Less

9 9 Stress Level 1

10 10 Level of Traffic Stress 1 (LTS 1) Islands

11 11 Level of Traffic Stress 2 (LTS 2) Islands

12 12 Slate of Possible Improvements

13 13 Resulting Network for LTS < 2

14 Home-Work Trip Connectivity Before After

15 Criteria for Level of Traffic Stress and Data Needs to Support the Analysis Segments Intersection Approaches Unsignalized Crossings

16 Segments Segment TypeLevel of Traffic Stress Stand-alone pathsLTS = 1 Segregated paths (sidepaths, cycle tracks) LTS = 1 Bike lanesLTS can vary from 1 to 4 Mixed trafficLTS can vary from 1 to 4

17 LTS > 1LTS > 2LTS > 3LTS > 4 Street width (thru lanes per direction) 1(n.a.)2 or more(n.a.) Sum of bike lane and parking lane width 15 ft or more 14 or 14.5 ft a 13.5 ft or less (n.a.) Speed limit or prevailing speed 25 mph or less 30 mph35 mph 40 mph or more Bike lane blockagerare(n.a.)frequent(n.a.) Criteria for Bike Lanes Alongside a Parking Lane Dimensions aggregate using Weakest Link logic

18 Criteria for Mixed Traffic Street Width Speed Limit 2-3 lanes4-5 lanes6+ lanes Up to 25 mphLTS 1 a or 2 a LTS 3LTS 4 30 mphLTS 2 a or 3 a LTS mphLTS 4 a. Use lower value for streets without marked centerlines or classified as residential and with fewer than 3 lanes; use higher value otherwise.

19 Dutch Criteria (CROW 2007) Lane configuration Daily traffic (vehicles/day) Street type and speed limit Urban local street Urban through street Rural local road Fast traffic road 30 km/h (19 mph) 50 km/h (31 mph) 60 km/h (37 mph) 70+ km/h (44+ mph) Two-way traffic with no centerline <2500Mixed traffic a Bike lane b or cycletrack c Advisory bike lane d Cycle track or low- speed service road 2000–3000bike lane b or cycle track e 3000–5000 >4000Bike lane or cycle track Bike lane or cycle track c Two lanes (1+1)anyBike lane or cycle track Bike lane or cycle track c Four lanes (2 + 2) or more any(Does not exist) Cycle track or low-speed service road a For designated bike routes, a bike lane or advisory bike lane is optional. b May be an advisory bike lane on road sections with no centerline. c Cycle track is preferred if there is parking; cycle track is recommended for designated bike routes. d Although CROW (2007) gives “mixed traffic” for this cell, the default layout for roads in this category is to mark advisory bike lanes. e Cycle track is preferred for designated bike routes.

20 Traffic Stress on Intersection Approaches – “Pocket Bike Lanes”

21 Criteria for Pocket Bike Lanes Configuration Level of Traffic Stress Single RT lane up to 150 ft long, starting abruptly while the bike lane continues straight; intersection angle such that turning speed is < 15 mph. LTS > 2 Single RT lane longer than 150 ft,starting abruptly while the bike lane continues straight; intersection angle such that turning speed is < 20 mph. LTS > 3 Single RT lane in which the bike lane shifts to the left, but intersection angle and curb radius are such that turning speed is < 15 mph. LTS > 3 Single RT lane with any other configuration; dual RT lanes; or RT lane plus option (through-right) lane LTS = 4

22 22 Stress at Crossings – Apparent Safe Routes Crossing Winchester Avenue

23 Crossing Winchester at Rosemary

24 Criteria for Crossings NO MEDIAN REFUGEWidth of Street Being Crossed Speed LimitUp to 3 lanes4 - 5 lanes6+ lanes Up to 25 mph LTS 1LTS 2LTS 4 30 mph LTS 1LTS 2LTS 4 35 mph LTS 2LTS 3LTS LTS 3LTS 4 WITH MEDIAN REFUGE Width of street being crossed Speed LimitUp to 3 lanes4 - 5 lanes6+ lanes Up to 25 mph LTS 1 LTS 2 30 mph LTS 1LTS 2LTS 3 35 mph LTS 2LTS 3LTS 4 40+LTS 3LTS 4

25 ADEC CalGIS 2012 Sacramento, CA 25 For an arterial to not be a barrier, it needs a low-stress crossing COMBINED WITH a low-stress approach

26 26 What are the Barriers?

27 A Measure of Connectivity Percent Trips Connected, by Level of Traffic Stress Trip Table for Home-to-Work Trips  Number of people traveling from zone i to zone j  Which zone pairs are connected at a given LTS?  TAZ (traffic analysis zone) = standard geographic unit

28 San Jose (south central), Stress Level 1 Connectivity : Can You Get from A to B  without exceeding a specified level of traffic stress?  without undue detour?

29 Detour Criterion Low-stress route should not be more than 25% longer than the shortest route OR (for short trips) 0.33 mi longer than the shortest route

30 30 Level of Traffic Stress 2 (LTS 2) Islands

31 31 Slate of Possible Improvements

32 32 Resulting Network for LTS < 2

33 Home-Work Trip Connectivity Before After

34 0.7% of home-work pairs connected HarborWalk Charles River Paths Muddy River Path SW Corridor Path MinutemanBikeway Neponset River Greenway

35

36 51% of home-work pairs connected 71% of population within 1 km

37 37 Acknowledgement Co-researcher Maaza Mekuria, PhD, Axum Engineering & Design Support from the Mineta Transportation Institute Inspiration from Rails to Trails Conservancy

38 Criteria for Bike Lanes Not Alongside a Parking Lane LTS > 1LTS > 2LTS > 3 LTS > 4 Street width (thru lanes per direction) 1 2, if directions are separated by a raised median more than 2, or 2 without a separating median (n.a.) Bike lane width 6 ft or more 5.5 ft or less(n.a.) Speed limit or prevailing speed 30 mph or less (n.a.)35 mph 40 mph or more Bike lane blockagerare(n.a.)frequent(n.a.)


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