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Ecosystem Services of Trees Jacinda Mainord, Inupiat Graduate Student School of the Environment Portland State University.

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Presentation on theme: "Ecosystem Services of Trees Jacinda Mainord, Inupiat Graduate Student School of the Environment Portland State University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ecosystem Services of Trees Jacinda Mainord, Inupiat Graduate Student School of the Environment Portland State University

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3 Bonan 2008 Forests cover ~42 million sq. km and store about half of the terrestrial carbon Tropical and temporal forests responsible for most of the carbon sequestered

4 Approximately 33% of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions are sequestered from forests (Bonan 2008)

5 Evolution of Climate Models Atmospheric modeling – Using energy fluxes, moisture, and atmospheric physics and dynamics Hydrologic cycle – Effects of vegetation on energy and water fluxes Incorporation of plant physiology theory – Biological control of evapotranspiration coupled with hydrometeorology and biogeochemistry

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7 Ecosystem Service- Benefits people obtain from ecosystems Products ie. Food, fuel, fiber Regulation and Disease Control ie. Climate control Supporting Services ie. Nutrient cycling Cultural and Aesthetic Benefits MA, 2005

8 What are the Ecosystem Services of an Urban Forest? Benefits Stormwater interception Carbon sequestration Air Quality Aesthetics Biodiversity Psychological Cultural Reducing energy use due to shading Disbenefits Initial investment Maintenance – Pruning – Fertilizers & water – Leaf litter removal – Sidewalks Pests Emissions of BVOCs and N 2 O Property damage Obscuring vistas & sunlight

9 What are the Cultural Ecosystem Services of a Forest?

10 Outline of Ecosystem Services Carbon Sequestration Air Pollutant Removal Rainwater Interception Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound Emissions

11 Carbon Sequestration and Storage Atmospheric carbon fixed through photosynthesis Carbon is lost through respiration and decomposition Leaf and twig drop add carbon to soils Nutrient uptake of soil carbon

12 Air Pollutant Removal Carlson 2003 Uptake through leaf stomata Deposition on tree surfaces

13 Biogenic Volatile Organic Carbon Emissions Trees emit isoprenes and monoterpenes Largest source of volatile organic compounds Role in ozone and carbon monoxide formation Role in haze formation

14 Stormwater Interception http://www.co.henrico.va.us

15 Differences in Ecosystem Services  Species Distribution  Age Distribution  Regional Differences  Meteorological and pollutant variations

16 Available Software tools CITYgreen STRATUM

17 i-Tree Software Suite i-Tree Eco i-Tree Streets i-Tree Vue i-Tree Canopy Beta Tools: – i-Tree Hydro – i-Tree Design i-Tree Species i-Tree Pest Detection i-Tree Storm Coming Soon: i-Tree Forecast

18 Urban Forest Effects- UFORE Also known as i-Tree Eco Peer-reviewed Computer model to calculate forest ecosystem services Species composition, tree density, diameter distribution, tree health, leaf and tree biomass, species diversity

19 Input to iTree Eco for carbon sequestration and pollutant removal: Region Reference trees Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) Crown width Crown base Height Meteorological data Hourly Pollutant Data

20 i-Tree Eco at a Glance Sample output

21 Assessment of ecosystem services of street trees Basic inventory data on tree species and diameter Provides BVOC emissions and rainfall interception Use of Reference Cities

22 Input to iTree Streets for rainfall interception and BVOCs Region Reference trees DBH

23 i-Tree Streets at a Glance BVOC Emissions (lb) 0.0 -4.4 -3.2 0.0 BVOC Emissions ($) -2 0 -10 -7 0 Total (lb) 29.1 22.1 23.3 16.2 8.3 Species Norway maple Ash Sugar maple Northern red oak Elm

24 Ecosystem Services Valuation of Trees Plantings in Portland, OR Study in conjunction with Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) and Friends of Trees (FoT) Study Area: 16.5 mile Multi-Use Path along I-205 in Portland, OR 3837 tree saplings planted at 22 sites Photo courtesy of FoT

25 Project Description At 5, 10, and 20 Years from Planting, Project: Carbon sequestration and carbon storage Air pollutants removal (specifically NO 2, SO 2, Particulate Matter (PM), and Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC)) Rainfall interception

26 Background Work Gather growth equations for trees planted Develop database projecting crown width, crown ratio, and height at DBH growth stages Populate i-Tree Eco database with projected tree metrics Run projected tree scenarios

27 Species and Plot Distribution Plot Name Tree Species Bigleaf maple Bigtooth maple Bitter cherry Black hawthorn Bur oak Chinkapin oak Common chokecherry Douglas fir Accolade Elm Grand fir Incense cedar Jeffery pine Klamath plum Lodgepole pine Noble fir Oregon ash Oregon crabapple Oregon white oak Pacific dogwood Pacific madrone Ponderosa pine Cascara Scarlet oak Sitka spruce Southern magnolia Washington hawthorn Western redcedar Western white pine White oak Grand Total Airport Way13 15 1 1 10 19 10 5167 1518 130 Alderwood271011 19 10 2 23 151913 2 3 154 Boise206 1340 35 96 5 14 275 153 Bush16 3 441 17 1925158 42011 7 163 Dean Creek 36 16 5 21 40 28 128 Division39 56 3 31 10 12 112854 103211 75 372 Flavel 3 1019 3 1138122 98 Gateway7 1014 4 92 46 Gateway Transit N20 25 10 20 135 Holman3917 1135 127 14 16143 143439 19 5 323 Johnson Creek35 20 94 5 129 8 11 113 Lents38185 376013186 10 8 2421536125 8 315 Lents Ln Extension20 10 5 2010 2520 130 Marx St.10 20 15 5 10 20 2520 140 Mill31 30 324 67 543 41 255837 274 Montavilla10 20 15 5 20 100 North Pioneer31102812 543 910 11 1320 6342838 6 277 Parkrose Transit N15 1013 14 15 81015 100 Parkrose Transit S13 20 1524 25 13 2030 160 Powell15 25 10 15 2515 135 South Pioneer2319710 51538 815 91 4625 3202129 2 5247 Steel23 1121 15181 3 9 355 3 144 Grand Total44580207152351734791384107251915361181563892165491286101711175322953837

28 Results at a Glance Tree Scenario Total Rainfall Interception (cu.m/yr) Carbon Sequestration Rate (kg/yr) Total Air Pollutant Removal (kg/yr) BVOC Emissions (kg/yr) 5 Year122415309183-116 10 Year507428841489-422 20 Year15502655711311-1077 Tree Scenario Total Rainfall Interception ($/yr) Carbon Sequestration Rate ($/yr) Total Air Pollutant Removal ($/yr) BVOC Emissions ($/yr) 5 Year$10,897$278$1,516($77) 10 Year$36,220$720$4,362($280) 20 Year$111,956$1,231$10,388($853)

29 Rainwater Interception Plot# Trees 5 Yr. Total Rainfall Interception (cu.m.) 10 Yr. Total Rainfall Interception (cu.m.) 20 Yr. Total Rainfall Interception (cu.m.) Airport Way130 35183524 Alderwood154 41174642 Boise153 79226696 Bush163 64209643 Dean Creek128 62155496 Division372 765121430 Flavel98 31166317 Gateway46 2369205 Gateway Transit N 135 30189525 Holman323 813991320 Johnson Creek113 14143423 Lents315 1404321477 Lents Ln Extension 130 35180495 Marx St.140 923321096 Mill274 15140375 Montavilla100 40205570 North Pioneer277 973651120 Parkrose Transit N 100 2386337 Parkrose Transit S160 54189636 Powell135 25170495 South Pioneer247 913401041 Steel144 78210639 Total3837 1224507415502 2010-11 Portland Airport Rainfall: 1.136 m 3 Total area of plantings: 343500 m 2 Total Rain over Plantings: 390,000 m 3 4.0% of Total Rainfall intercepted at 20 years after Planting

30 Years After Planting Carbon Sequestration Rate (kg/yr) Kg Emitted/Car over 16.5 mile stretch Annual Car Equivalents of Carbon Sequestered 5 Yr. 15309 4.513391 10 Yr. 28841 4.516389 20 Yr. 65571 4.5114526 Emissions calculated from Walsh et al 2008. Emission Factor: 0.17 kg CO 2 /km for passenger car 2008 Average Daily Traffic at Gladstone Exit off I-205: 143800 cars

31 Annual Air Pollutant Removal Years after Planting5 Yr CO (kg/yr)5 Yr SO2 (kg/yr)5 Yr NO2 (kg/yr)5 Yr O3 (kg/yr)5 Yr PM10 (kg/yr) BVOC Emissions (kg/yr) 5 Year7.647.2931.8977.3658.57-116 10 Year20.4419.585.37207.07156.76-422 20 Year54.7952.26228.79554.96420.12-1077 Photos courtesy of Friends of Trees

32 Benefits Total by Concordia $/Tree Concordia Total by PSU 20 Yr $/Tree PSU 20 Yr Carbon Sequestration$2,992$0.65$4855$1.27 Air Quality Improvement$4,822$1.04$9,535$2.49 Stormwater$56,964$12.29$111,956$29.18 Total$64,778$13.97$126,346$32.94 Scenario ValuationAverage/Tree 5 Yr. Grand Total$12,623$3.29 10 Yr. Grand Total$15,721$4.10 20 Yr. Grand Total$122,722$31.98 Based on: $20.30/ton C sequestered $7.34/cu. m rainfall intercepted $1407/ t CO $9906/ t O3 $9906/ t NO2 $6614/ t PM10 $2425/t SO2 Valuation of Ecosystem Services

33 Plot No. Trees Planted 5 Yr. Rainwater Interception Valuation 10 Yr. Rainwater Interception Valuation 20 Yr. Rainwater Interceptio n Valuation 5 Yr. Net Air Quality Valuation 10 Yr. Net Air Quality Valuatio n 20 Yr. Net Air Quality Valuation 5 Yr. Carbon Sequestra tion Valuation 10 Yr. Carbon Sequestrati on Valuation 20 Yr. Carbon Sequestratio n Valuation Airport Way130$384$1,256$3,770$49$120$239$32$77 $170 Alderwood154$347$1,267$4,584$69$192$394$82$190 $420 Boise153$498$1,679$5,099$61$201$559$38$88 $195 Bush Garden163$532$1,625$4,663$61$195$549$10$24 $57 Dean Creek Hill128$344$1,156$3,490$34$100$371$86$153 $349 Division St372$1,022$3,431$10,358$125$331$679$71$141 $319 Flavel98$403$1,114$2,437$34$73$152$62$151 $344 Gateway Transit46$148$505$1,494$19$66$183$140$230 $533 Gateway Transit North135$391$1,307$3,867$55$152$297$51$72 $166 Holman Hill323$795$2,760$9,411$123$344$771$33$78 $178 Johnson Creek113$301$1,037$3,119$69$183$235$77$176 $396 Lents Lane315$935$3,187$10,648$135$395$944$30$69 $162 Lents Lane Ext130$407$1,310$3,659$55$156$317$51$54 $124 Mill St140$685$2,357$7,759$103$285$692$52$85 $190 Montavilla274$243$864$2,682$34$88$171$17$46 $104 NE Marx St100$396$1,346$4,094$46$134$359$22$51 $115 North Pioneer277$799$2,654$8,103$102$297$733$31$77 $178 Parkrose North100$242$717$2,354$41$117$253$35$85 $195 Parkrose South160$472$1,428$4,538$49$149$419$60$73 $168 Powell & Duke135$403$1,230$3,616$42$102$152$30$71 $161 South Pioneer247$666$2,359$7,519$83$241$600$69$77 $175 Steele Slope144$483$1,630$4,693$59$182$466$62$81 $185 Total3837$10,897$36,220$111,956$1,448$4,104$9,535$1,141$2,149$4,885

34 20 Year After Planting Economic Valuation by Species SpeciesStorm waterAir QualityCO2 Scarlet oak$109.15$1.76$1.13 Accolade elm$64.18$4.17$0.59 Bigleaf maple$45.64$3.13$0.27 Bur oak$40.54$0.73$0.45 Chinkapin oak$40.54$0.17$0.50 Oregon white oak$40.54$0.17$0.39 Pacific dogwood$40.54($0.08)$0.35 White oak$40.54$0.08$0.50 Douglas fir$37.50$8.30$0.13 Grand fir$37.50$0.48$0.22 Jeffery pine$37.50$1.68$0.18 Noble fir$37.50$2.02$0.20 Ponderosa pine$37.50$4.43$0.21 Sitka spruce$37.50$1.99$0.27 Western redcedar$37.50$0.92$0.07 Western white pine$37.50$0.79$0.17 Rocky mountain maple$36.02$0.51$0.32 Southern magnolia$30.18$5.70$0.35 Oregon ash$28.57$3.30$0.45 Lodgepole pine$25.77$0.50$0.17 Klamath plum$25.42$0.45$0.52 Black hawthorn$23.78$0.63$0.51 Washington hawthorn$23.78$0.67$0.51 Bitter cherry$12.48$0.24$0.52 Cascara$12.48$2.02$0.43 Common chokecherry$12.48$0.07$0.52 Oregon crabapple$8.70$0.17$0.42 Incense cedar$5.32$0.61$0.21 Pacific madrone$4.27$0.90$0.20

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36 Access to i-Tree Software Suite http://itreetools.org/ Applications and Utilities Available for download Workshop training schedules Previous workshop presentations Manuals Other resources and publications

37 Examples of Use in Tribal Communities Decision making Quantify pollutant removal, rainwater interception, carbon sequestration Broad picture of entire forest Assess canopy cover of tribal lands Stream flow, water quality

38 Questions? Quyana, thank you. Contact information: jacinda.mainord@gmail.com

39 References Bonan, G. B., 2008. Forests and Climate Change: Forcings, Feedbacks, and the Climate Benefits of Forests. Science. 320, 1444-1449. MA, 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Current State and Trends. Island Press, Washington DC Carlson, Toby N., (5 Aug 2003). Chapter 7. John A. Dutton e-Education Institute. Retrieved on 2 Apr 2012. https://courseware.e- education.psu.edu/simsphere/workbook/ch07.html Nowak et al. 2008. A Ground-Based Method of Assessing Urban Forest Structure and Ecosystem Services. Aboriculture and Urban Forestry. Vol 34 No. 6. pp 347-358 Walsh et al 2008. A comparison of carbon dioxide emissions associated with motorised transport modes and cycling in Ireland. Transportation Research Part D. 13, (2008), 392-399. Murray, F.J.; Marsh, L.; Bradford, P.A. 1994. New York State energy plan, vol. II: issue reports. Albany, NY: New York State Energy Office. McPherson EG et al. (2002) Western Washington and Oregon Community Tree Guide: Benefits, Costs and Strategic Planning. International Society of Arboriculture- Pacific Northwest Chapter, Silverton, OR. 76 pp. Tech. Rep. NRS-57. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station. 49 p. http://www.furneysnursery.com/2011/11/15/chief-joseph-lodgepole-pine-pinus-contorta-chief-joseph%E2%80%99/ http://www.furneysnursery.com/2011/11/15/chief-joseph-lodgepole-pine-pinus-contorta-chief-joseph%E2%80%99/ Qingfu Ziao, E. Gregory McPherson, Susan L. Ustin and Mark E. Grismer. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol 105. No. D23. Pages 29173- 29188. Dec. 2000. http://www.itreetools.org/ http://www.co.clackamas.or.us/docs/dtd/trafficcount.pdf http://www.wrh.noaa.gov/ http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/


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