Presentation on theme: "1 Exploring Efficient and Scalable Multicast Routing in Future Data Center Networks Dan Li, Jiangwei Yu, Junbiao Yu, Jianping Wu Tsinghua University Presented."— Presentation transcript:
1 Exploring Efficient and Scalable Multicast Routing in Future Data Center Networks Dan Li, Jiangwei Yu, Junbiao Yu, Jianping Wu Tsinghua University Presented by DENG Xiang
Outline I Introduction and background II Build an efficient multicast tree III Make multicast routing scalable IV Evaluation V Conclusion
Data Centers the core of cloud services online cloud applications back-end infrastructural computations servers and switches popularity of group communication Introduction and background
Multicast save network traffic improve application throughput
When Multicast meets data center networks... Problem A: Data center topologies usually expose high link density and traditional technologies can result in severe link waste. Problem B: Low-end commodity switches are largely used in most data center designs for economic and scalability consideration.
Data Center Network Architecture BCube Portland VL2 (similar to Portland) Build an efficient Multicast tree
BCube constructed recursively: BCube(n,0), BCube(n,1)...BCube(n,k) each server has k+1 ports each switch has n ports number of servers: n k+1
Portland three-level and n pods aggregation level and edge level: n/2 switches with n ports core level: (n/2) 2 switches with n ports number of servers: n 3 /4
Consistent themes lie in them use low-end switches in the view of expense high link density exists data center structure is built in a hierarchical and regular way
In order to save network traffic, how to build an efficient Multicast tree traditional receiver-driven Multicast routing protocols originally for the Internet, such as PIM approximate algorithm of Steiner tree Steiner tree problem: to build a Multicast tree with the lowest cost covering the given nodes source-driven tree building algorithm the proposed algorithm
group spanning graph each hop is a stage stage 0 includes the sender only stage d is composed of receivers d is the diameter of data center topology
Build Multicast tree in a source-to- receiver expansion way upon the group spanning graph, with the tree node set from each stage strictly covering downstream receivers definition of cover: A covers B if and only if for each node in B, there exists a directed path from a node in A A strictly covers B when A covers B and any subset of A does not cover B.
algorithm details in BCube: a) select the set of servers(assume the set is E) from stage 2 which are covered by sender s and a single switch in stage 1(assume it is W) b) |E| of the BCube(n,k-1)s has a server in E as the source p, and the receiver set in stage 2*(k+1) covered by p. c) the other BCube(n,k-1) has s as the source and receivers in stage 2*k covered by s but not by W as the receiver set
algorithm details in Portland: a) From the ﬁrst stage to the stage of core-level switches, any single path can be chosen, because any single core-level switch can cover the downstream receivers. b) From the stage of core-level switches to the ﬁnal stage of receivers, the paths are ﬁxed due to the interconnection rule in PortLand.
a mechanism of packet forward to support massive Multicast group is necessary: in-packet Bloom Filter For only in-packet Bloom Filter, bandwidth waste is significant for large groups. in-switch forwarding table For only in-switch forwarding table, very large memory space is needed. Make Multicast routing scalable
The bandwidth waste of in-packet Bloom Filter comes from: the Bloom Filter ﬁeld in the packet brings network bandwidth cost. false-positive forwarding by Bloom Filter causes trafﬁc leakage. switches receiving packets by false-positive forwarding may further forward packets to other switches, incurring not only additional trafﬁc leakage but also possible loops.
we define Bandwidth Overhead Ratio r to decribe in- packet Bloom Filter: p--the packet length (including the Bloom Filter ﬁeld) f--the length of the in-packet Bloom Filter ﬁeld t--the number of links in the Multicast tree c--the numberof actual links covered by Bloom Filter based forwarding
with the packet size as 1500 bytes, the relation among r, f and group size: BCube(8,3) Portland with 48-port switches
In-packet Bloom Filter does not accommodate large-size group. So a combination routing scheme is proposed. a) in-packet Bloom Filters are used for small-sized groups to save routing space in switches, while routing entries are installed into switches for large groups to alleviate bandwidth overhead. b) Intermediate switches/servers receiving the Multicast packet check a special TAG in the packet to determine whether to forward the packet via in-packet Bloom Filter or looking up the in-switch forwarding table.
two ways of in-packet Bloom Filter node-based encoding elements are the tree nodes, including switches and servers and it is chosen. link-based encoding elements are the directed physical links
false-positive forwarding caused by in-packet Bloom Filter may result in loops. the solution: When a node only forwards the packet to its neighboring nodes (within the Bloom Filter) whose distances to source are larger than itself.
Evaluation evaluation of souce-driven tree buiding algorithm: BCube(8,3) and 48-port-switch Portland; 1Gbps link speed; 200 random-sized groups; number of links in the tree computation time