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A Brief History of the Profession of Physical Therapy 1.

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Presentation on theme: "A Brief History of the Profession of Physical Therapy 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Brief History of the Profession of Physical Therapy 1

2 Across the ages 2

3 Influences in the early 20 th century ► War ► Epidemics  Polio – NYC, England ► Accidents 3

4 ► Nurses/selected phys ed graduates recruited to assist with polio epidemic 4

5 Pioneer of the Profession ► Mary McMillan ► ► Grad work in physical culture and corrective exercises, which included Swedish gymnastics 5

6 Mary McMillan ► Worked in hospitals in England with the war wounded, developmental disabilities ► Returned to U.S. in 1915 and became director of massage and medical gymnastics at Children’s Hospital in Portland, Maine 6

7 World War I ► 1917, WWI ► Surgeon General of U.S. Army anticipated a need for a formal “reconstruction” program for injured soldiers ► Established the Army’s Division of Special Hospital and Physical Reconstruction ► Charged with development of education programs to prepare “reconstruction aides” 7

8 Early physical therapists ► Early recruits into what would become the profession of physical therapy were primarily women with physical education degrees 8

9 World War I ► At Walter Reed General Hospital, organized units of Reconstruction Aide Corp, which were to be sent overseas 9

10 ► Reconstruction Aides  14 education programs  2000 graduates  800 in service  300 overseas 10

11 Training in anatomy 11

12 Educational programs 12

13 Reconstruction Aides 13

14 After WWI ► McMillan was the superintendent in U.S.S.G.’s office over training programs ► 86,000 returning veterans received care from reconstruction aides on their return to the U.S. (1919 Fort Sam Houston) 14

15 Getting organized ► As Reconstruction Aides scattered to civilian positions, Mary McMillan proposed the establishment of a national association to preserve the role of physical therapists 15

16 Getting organized ► Invited to form the American Women’s Physical Therapeutic Association 16

17 AWPTA ► First organizational meeting was held in 1921 ► Acknowledged the need for recognition of their work ► 274 members in their first year (vs. >70,000) ► Mary McMillan first president ► “The purpose of the association shall be to establish and maintain a professional and scientific standard for those engaged in the profession of physical therapeutics.” ► Association history parallels profession history 17

18 PT REVIEW ► Two months after the association’s founding the PT REVIEW was in print, and has been published continuously (now Physical Therapy) 18

19 First annual convention 1922, Boston ► Treatment for patients with infantile paralysis ► Posture training ► Physiotherapy and its relation to industrial accidents 19

20 1928 ► Standards for PT education ► 6 schools approved ► AMA asked to assist with accreditation in

21 Training/credentialing ► First bachelor’s degree at NYU in 1927 ► 1935, the American Medical Association established the American Registry for physical therapists who pass a qualifying exam 21

22 Poliomyelitis epidemic ► 1910 – 40’s ► National Infantile Paralysis Association contributed much money to start up additional schools and training programs (New England 1916) 22

23 National Infantile Paralysis Association 23

24 ► Few job opportunities ► 1941, WWII declared ► Fewer than 1200 PT’s ► Emergency educational programs established in Army hospitals and civilian schools ► 1600 PT’s served in WWII 24

25 WWII 25

26 1947 ► “American Physical Therapy Association” ► 1958, 38 educational institutions, BS or certificate programs 26

27 Influential women 27

28 Physical Therapy in the 1950’s 28

29 Development of roles and skills 29

30 Milestones ► 1960, first master’s degree, at Case Western Reserve ► 1983, CAPTE sole accrediting agency ► 1984, Diagnosis by PT’s ► 1985, Board certification ► 1985, Entry point into health care ► 1993, first DPT 30

31 First DPT Class at Chatham College May


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