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Introduction to Sediment Sampling Siletz, Coquille, Umatilla and Cowlitz Tribes Siletz, OR May 20 – 23, 2013 U.S. Geological Survey TEchnical training.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Sediment Sampling Siletz, Coquille, Umatilla and Cowlitz Tribes Siletz, OR May 20 – 23, 2013 U.S. Geological Survey TEchnical training."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Sediment Sampling Siletz, Coquille, Umatilla and Cowlitz Tribes Siletz, OR May 20 – 23, 2013 U.S. Geological Survey TEchnical training in Support of Native American Relations (TESNAR) Mark Uhrich, USGS, Portland, OR Glen Hess, USGS, Portland, OR MacKenzie Keith, USGS, Portland, OR

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3 Fluvial-Sediment Data Needs in the U.S. n Historical: Maintenance of reservoirs, channels, and hydraulic structures/bridge piers n Today’s needs include but are not limited to: - Legal requirements – TMDL’s - Salmon recovery on Tribal Lands (Siletz and Klamath Basins, White Salmon & Elwha River, WA) (Dam decommission and removal) - Contaminated sediment management - Best Management Practice (BMP) Evaluations; Env-Imp-Stat - Fire-burn hydrology/sedimentology - Stream restoration/geomorphic assessments - Physical-biotic interactions - Global carbon budget - Sand budget and bar maintenance - Productivity of agricultural lands -

4 Built in 1909 for hydropower Head = 7 Meters Abandoned for power generation in 1960’s Blocked American shad and striped bass from reaching historic spawning grounds Environmental benefits of dam removal justified demolition by Federal Government *

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6 Embry Dam Demolition Fredericksburg, VA, USA February 23, 2004

7 And in our backyard- the Marmot Dam Breach Sandy River, OR, October 19, ,000 yd 3 stored behind reservoir ,000 yd 3 released by March 2008 (45%) 955,000 yd 3 stored behind reservoir ,000 yd 3 released by March 2008 (45%)

8 And just started- the Elwha River Dam Removal Olympic National Park, WA September 17, 2011 Largest removal in U.S. history miles of river and tributaries will be restored -brings cultural, spiritual and economic healing to the Lower Elwha Klallum Tribe Largest removal in U.S. history miles of river and tributaries will be restored -brings cultural, spiritual and economic healing to the Lower Elwha Klallum Tribe

9 NF Toutle Station

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11 Many Sediment Sources

12 Toutle River Basin monitoring stations 1 2

13 MSH background and NF Toutle Sed Volumes Eruption of May 18, 1980 deposited over Eruption of May 18, 1980 deposited over 3 billion yd 3 of sediment in NF Toutle valley 3 billion yd 3 of sediment in NF Toutle valley SRS designed to trap 250 million yd 3 until 2035, so far trapped over 105 million yd 3 - yet sediment has filled to level of spillway SRS designed to trap 250 million yd 3 until 2035, so far trapped over 105 million yd 3 - yet sediment has filled to level of spillway Issues: Cowlitz/Columbia R sedimentation, flooding hazards, navigation for shipping commerce, salmon recovery/hatchery Issues: Cowlitz/Columbia R sedimentation, flooding hazards, navigation for shipping commerce, salmon recovery/hatchery NF Toutle SSLs in million tons and total Q in 1000 cfs (avg Q 786 cfs): NF Toutle SSLs in million tons and total Q in 1000 cfs (avg Q 786 cfs): SSL Q Q

14 Sediment Retention Structure - SRS Spillway Raising spillway 7 feet, Sept 2012

15 Structures built upstream of SRS USACE - Summer 2010

16 Sediment Damages are Costly n Physical, Chemical, and Biological Sediment Damages in North America Total > $20-$50 Billion* Annually (Most in the USA; AGU-EOS, 10/5/2004; Science, V.267, pp ; Osterkamp et al. 1998) n Given a 1% Reduction in Damages Through Better Resource Management, a Continental Sediment Monitoring Program Would Pay for Itself at least 40 Times Over

17 Scope of course Instruction and field practice of USGS methods for the safe collection of quality- assured fluvial-sediment data: n streamflow measurement n suspended-sediment sampling n bedload sampling

18 Scope of course (cont) As underpinnings for this we provide instruction on: n Streamflow is everything- must start here n Basic fluvial sediment concepts n Sediment-sampling equipment & deployment n Overview of computational methods n Overview of sediment-surrogate technologies n Bedload Sampling

19 Primary Assumption n For instructional purposes, our assumed goal is to collect sufficient data to compute sediment loads and store the data in the USGS National Water Information System. n In reality, reasons for collecting sediment data may be quite different – regardless, the following factors remain of primary importance: n Consistency n Reliability n Comparability n Database integrity

20 Upon Departure, Students Should: n Understand basic streamflow and fluvial-sediment concepts n Understand and appreciate the value of a representative sample and consistent methods n Be familiar with more common tools for collecting sediment data, and their limitations n Be able to safely collect representative - streamflow - suspended-sediment samples isokinetically - bedload samples n Understand basic sediment load calculations

21 What we will not cover: n Database considerations (such as the USGS National Water Information System; NWIS) n Sediment lab instrumentation and techniques n Network design and developing a sediment monitoring program n Bed-material and pebble-count sampling n Producing a suspended-sediment and bedload record - Best to attend the USGS Sediment Data-Collection Techniques class, in Castle Rock, WA- March 2014 for more detail on the above

22 Points to remember… n Historical sediment needs- channel & reservoir n Todays needs- more complex; dam removals, restoration, TMDLs, contaminated sediment, etc n Sediment damages are more expensive than establishing a monitoring network n Be consistent with your methods and database n Collect a representative sample for your site n Data should be reliable and comparable site-to-site

23 Field training tomorrow

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25 One of our class sampling sites is the Siletz River on Hwy 229

26 Stage and Flow at Siletz River

27 4-wheel crane setup on bridge with B-reel and two counter weights D-74 sampler


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