Presentation on theme: "Understanding Mercury Compliance in the NESHAP or Cement Mact"— Presentation transcript:
1 Understanding Mercury Compliance in the NESHAP or Cement Mact Ohio Lumex takes a close look at what's really in the NESHAP Rule ( Cement Mact ) for the Portland Cement MFG Industry pertaining to MERCURY with an overview of requirements using Sorbent Trap Sampling for compliance
2 Important Dates for NESHAP or Cement Mact Cement Mact AnnouncementEPA Finalizes Amendments to Air Toxics Standards for Portland Cement Manufacturing December 20, 2012 – In response to a federal court decision, petitions for reconsideration and technical information received after final rules were issued in 2010, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized amendments to the agency’s air toxics rule for Portland cement manufacturing. The amended rule will maintain dramatic reductions of mercury, acid gases, particulate matter and total hydrocarbons from existing cement kilns across the country, while ensuring that emissions from new kilns remain low. Final rule published for release on Feb 12, 2013Website:New Compliance Date: Sept. 9th 2015Today’s final amendments apply to two air emissions rules for the Portland cement industry: air toxics standards and new source performance standards. The final air toxics rule retains emission limits for mercury, acid gases and total hydrocarbons from the 2010 rules, along with retaining requirements that kilns continuously monitor compliance with limits for mercury, total hydrocarbons and particulate matter (PM).NESHAP: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants ( Portland Cement MFG )
3 Final Emissions Limits for Portland Cement MFG. Pollutant: Limits for Existing Source Final Limits for New SourceMercury pounds per million tons of pounds per million tons of(major and area sources) Clinker, averaged over 30 Days Clinker, averaged over 30 DaysNOTE: Standards for Fugitive Emissions from open clinker storage pilesThese Clinker Piles ( sources ) under this rule would be controlled by work practices which minimize emissions by various means ( Enclosing piles, spraying piles and shielding piles from wind )The EPA estimates that this rule will affect about 100 Portland Cement facilities located in theUS & Puerto Rico about 86 Mfg plants and 14 facilities will be affected for clinker piles /storage work practices.
6 Examples of 4 main raw materials used for Portland Cement Manufacture
7 Looking at Raw Materials to make Cement Clinker LimestoneShaleClayIron OreCement ClinkerCement clinkers are formed by the heat processing of cement elements in a kiln. Limestone, Shale, Clay or Ash and iron ore in specific proportions are heated in a rotating kiln
8 Cement Raw Material Breakdown The most common materials in cement are:Limestone 70% – 80%Shale & or Clay 10% - 20%Sand 2% - 5%Iron Ore Source 1% - 2%Limestone, Shale & Clay are sedimentary materials and are typically low in metals including mercury.NOTE: The exception comes when these materials are associated with volcanics.Conclusion: Recommend sending raw material samples to Ohio Lumex lab to analyze for mercury concentration so you have a better understanding of the source of mercury in your cement MFG process.
10 Contribution to Total Emissions as a % Typical Materials & Fuel – Mercury ContentContribution to Total Emissions as a %
11 Cement is Made in a 2 Step Process Step1: First clinker is produced from raw materialsThe raw materials are delivered in bulk to the raw mill, crushed and homogenized into a mixture which is fed into a rotary kiln. This is an enormous rotating pipe of 60 to 90 m long and up to 6 m in diameter. This huge kiln is heated by a 2000°C flame inside of it. The kiln is slightly inclined to allow for the materials to slowly reach the other end, where it is quickly cooled to °C. Four basic oxides in the correct proportions make cement clinker: calcium oxide (65%), silicon oxide (20%), alumina oxide (10%) and iron oxide (5%). These elements mixed homogeneously (called “raw meal” or slurry) will combine when heated by the flame at a temperature of approximately 1450°C.Step 2: Cement is then produced from cement clinkerThen the 2nd step is handled in a cement grinding mill, which may be located in a different place to the clinker plant. Gypsum (calcium sulphates) and possibly additional materials (such as blast furnace slag, coal fly ash ) or inert materials (limestone) are added to the clinker. All the materials are ground leading to a fine and homogenous powder. The process is complete then the cement is stored in silos before being dispatched either in bulk or bagged.
12 Cement Plant HG Species During Raw Mill On & Off
13 Mercury During - Raw Mill On & Off Operation Raw Mill On: Kiln exhaust gases sent to raw mill, which have a relatively high temperature and low humidity, can be utilized for the drying of raw materials in the raw mill when the raw mill is in operation.Raw Mill Off: During raw mill off, the kiln exhaust gases are directly sent to the baghouse or ESP and then to the stack.NOTE: Mercury emissions are typically higher in kiln operations with the raw mill-off due to the missing adsorption capacity of the freshly ground particles in the raw mill.So some secondary measures, such as the activated carbon injection, may further contribute to the reduction of mercury emissions, but will impose some technical solutions if the filter dust is recycled back into the kiln or into the cement mill.Some Conclusions: High particulate removal efficiencies can be achieved with electrostatic precipitators and bag filters. The reduction of dust emissions is very important in terms of reducing heavy metal emissions. Fractions of many metals leave the kiln with the emitted dust particles. Nevertheless, contrary to common opinion, the upgrading of Particulate Removal equipment does not provide an effective solution to the capture of mercury since it is mainly emitted in vapor form from the cement kiln stack.
14 NESHAP Rule Startup / Shutdown Work Practice Standard Cement Plant Definitions:Startup means: startup begins when the kilns induced fan is turned on and fuel combustion is occurring in the main burner of the kiln. Startup ends when feed has been continuous to the kiln for at least 120 minutes or kiln feed rate exceeds 60% of design.Shutdown means: Shutdown begins when continuous feed to the kiln is halted and ends when continuous kiln rotation ceases.Kiln Operating Day: Means a 24 hour period that begins at midnight during which the kiln operates for any time.New Source: Means any source that commenced construction or reconstruction after May 6, 2009
15 NESHAP Rule Startup / Shutdown Work Practice Standard Kiln Startup:During startup the kiln must initially use any one or combination of the following clean fuels ( Natural Gas, Propane, Distillate Oil, Syn-Gas or Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel ) until the kiln reaches 1200F then primary fuel can commenceAll APC ( air pollution control ) devices must be operating prior to combusting any fuelAlso you must keep records as specified in during periods of startup & shutdown including ( Date/time, duration, quantity of feed & fuel used during startup )Requiring startup & shutdown procedures to be included in the facilities operation & maintenance plan.
16 Looking at Mercury Monitoring in the NESHAP Requirements 40CFR Part 60 & 63Can use HG Cems or Sorbent Trap Sampling system for HG monitoring requirements in accordance with PS-12A for Cems & PS-12B for STS.Each pair of sorbent traps can be used to sample stack gas for a minimum of 1 day and a maximum of 7 operating days ( except during RATA ).You must also develop an emissions monitoring plan in accordance with the regulation.No monitoring during startup and shut down instead adopted a work practice standard, butall plant air pollution control devices must be running during startup & shutdown.Must measure & record weight production of clinker in tons on an hourly basis with anaccuracy of +/- 5%.Stack Flow rates must be corrected for moisture when using to calculate HG emissionsNOTE: CMS can be HG Cems or Sorbent Trap SystemTerms: STS = Sorbent Trap Sampling SystemCMS = Continuous Monitoring SystemPS-12B = Performance Standard 12B
17 NESHAP Compliance 40CFR Part 60 & 63 Cont. Must convert HG analytical data ( ug/scm ) to reporting format of lbs/MMton clinker over 30 day average.The STS requires the use of a Certified stack gas flow monitor to establish sampling flow rate/ stack flow rate ratio and hourly data logging verifying percent proportional sample to stack flow rate.A rata of STS is required for initial certification and conducted annually there after for compliance.You must demonstrate compliance by operating a CMS or STS using data from the first 30 operating days after the compliance date of this rule ( Sept. 9th, 2015 ).
18 NESHAP Compliance 40CFR Part 60 & 63 Cont. Commingled Exhaust Requirements: Kiln & Coal mill exhaust are combined into 1 stackNote: If the coal mill and kiln exhaust are not combined you must monitor at each exhaust locationIf you measure mercury at coal mill separately from kiln exhaust they must be added together when calculating 30 day average ( lbs / MMton of Clinker )The Plant shall demonstrate compliance and develop a site specific monitoring plan.You cannot use data recorded during monitoring system malfunctions, repairs of monitoringsystem malfunctions, or required monitoring system quality assurance or control activities incalculations used to report emissions.A monitoring system malfunction is any sudden, infrequent, not reasonably preventable failure ofthe monitoring system to provide valid data.
19 NESHAP Sorbent Trap Sampling System Rata criteria When performing a RATA on a STS operate sorbent sampling system should be done in accordance to QA requirements in Procedure 5 of Appendix F of Part 60.The Rata must be conducted during normal kiln operation and Raw Mill is ON.Sorbent Trap Sampling SystemRATA Criteria Section 2 breakthrough depends on stack gas Hg concentration.The allowable section 2 breakthrough is:≤ 10% of Section 1 mass if HG is > 1 µg/m3≤ 20% of Section 1 mass if HG is > 0.5 and ≤ 1 µg/m3≤ 50% of Section 1 mass if HG is > 0.1 and ≤ 0.5 µg/m3There is no breakthrough criterion if HG is < 0.1 µg/m3
20 Sorbent Traps for Compliance in accordance with PS-12B Compliance with HG emissions standard based on first 30 operating days after the compliance date of this rule.Calculate the 30 kiln operating day emissions rate value using the assigned hourly Hg emissions concentrations and the respective flow and production rate values collected during the 30 kiln operating day monitoring period.If you operate an integrated sorbent trap monitoring system conforming to PS-12Byou may use a monitoring period at least 24 hours but no longer than 168 hoursin length. You should use a monitoring period that is a multiple of 24 hours exceptduring a RATA as allowed in PS-12B.* Review the QA/QC requirements in PS-12B Table 12B-1 for Sampling & Analysis
21 Performance Standard-12B QA/QC Criteria ABLE12B-1QA/QC CRITERIA FORSORBENTRAPMONITORINGYSTEMOPERATION ANDCERTIFICATIONQA/QC test or specificationAcceptance criteriaFrequencyConsequences if not metPremonitoring leak check?4% of target sampling ratePrior to monitoringMonitoring must not commence untilthe leak check is passed.Post?4% of average sampling rateAfter monitoringInvalidate the data from the pairedtraps or, if certain conditions are met,report adjusted dataa from a single trap(see Section ).Ratio of stack gas flow rate tosample flow rateHourly ratio may not deviate fromthe reference ratio by more than±25%.Every hour throughout monitoringperiodInvalidate the data from thepairedreport adjusted data from a single trap(seeSection ).Sorbent trap section 2breakthrough?5% of Section 1 Hg massEvery sampletraps or, if certain conditionns are met,Paired sorbent trap agreement?10% Relative Deviation (RD) ifthe average concentration is > 1.0?g/m3?20% RD if the averageconcentration is ? 1.0 ?g/mEitherinvalidate the data from thepaired traps or report the results fromthe trap with the higher Hgconcentration.Performance Standard-12B QA/QC Criteria
23 NESHAP HG Emissions Reporting Overview For units that continuously monitor mercury emissions:CEMS or Hg sorbent trap monitoring system, within 60 days after the reporting periods, you must submit reports to the EPA’s WebFIRE database.Each reporting period, the reports must include all of the calculated 30-operating dayrolling average values derived from the CEMS or Hg sorbent trap monitoring systems.Reporting a failure to meet a standard due to a malfunction. For each failure to meet astandard or emissions limit caused by a malfunction at an affected source, you mustreport the failure in the semi-annual compliance report required by 40CFR (b)(9)Reports must contain ( Date, time, duration, and the cause of each event includingunknown causes) also number of events in the reporting period.Must report monitoring malfunctions, the date, time and duration also list the affectedsource or equipment. Provide estimate of the volume of pollutant emitted over the standardand a description of method used to estimate the emissions.
24 NESHAP HG Emissions Reporting Overview Cont. Reports must also include a description of actions taken by an owner or operator during a malfunction at affected source to minimize emissions in accordance with 40CFR (d) including actions taken to correct a malfunctionMonitoring system failures that are caused in part by poor maintenance or careless operation are not malfunctions. You may not use data recorded during monitoringsystem malfunctions, repairs associated with monitoring system malfunctions, or requiredmonitoring system quality assurance or control activities in calculations used to reportemissions or operating levels.40CFR Affirmative Defense for Violation of Emission Standards During MalfunctionIn response to an action to enforce the standards set forth in § (b) and (c) and § and you may assert an affirmative defense to a claim for civil penalties for violations of such standards that are caused by malfunction. The owner or operator seeking to assert an affirmative defense shall submit a written report to the Administrator with all necessary supporting documentation.
25 Key Advantages of Sorbent Trap Monitoring System Simple to Install, Implement and OperateTypically 1 Day To Install, 1-3 Days To Certify ( RATA )Highly Accurate/Precise Method for Analysis – NIST Traceable SRMMulti-section sorbent tube with very low detection levels 1 – 3 ngRelatively Inexpensive & Very Reliable compared to CEMsGenerally less than 25% of the 1st Year Cost Of Hg CEMsSorbent has a 10+ Year Track RecordApplied Widely To Coal-Utility Industry and is the EPA Reference Method for RATA ( Method 30B )Sample captured directly in stack – no Hg transport issuesLittle or no stack or facility engineering costsNo calibration gas costs (or daily, weekly calibrations only quarterly audit)Traps are small, non-hazardous, require no special storage or handling, have no expiration and are very simple to analyze or ship to lab ( On-Site Analysis Can be Done Quickly )
26 Keys to Success using STS Look at the Data!Ongoing Data ReviewHave a “Go-To” Person who will take accountability for the success of your Mercury MonitoringOpen Dialogue with Ohio LumexWe try to Catch it before you do…but, if you do the analysis, then stay in touch.Sampling TrendsLow Flow (250cc/min – 400cc/min)Temp set to about 250° - 350° FUse Probe Shield if wet FGD or High Particulate
27 Sorbent Trap Technology is ready NOW for MACT-Level measurements Ability to measure levels below 0.2 μg/dscm.Consistently better than 10% relative accuracy at allconcentrations.NIST traceable.Sorbent Trap monitoring is the current gold standard forLow-Level mercury measurements.RATA fail-proof (It is the EPA Reference Method after allmeeting your annual RATA requirements is almost aforegone conclusion.Low maintenance.Predictable operating costs.Hg CEMS IssuesSensitivity ?Reliability ?QA/QC ?
28 Questions to the Cement Plants ? 1 Which measurement technology will you choose Sorbent Trap Sampling or HG Cems ?2 Are you ready to implement mercury measurement & compliance in the NESHAP?Who will you turn to for expert advice regarding Sorbent Traps, Sampling & Analysis?Do you know what your mercury concentrations are in all of your sources ?Do you have the personnel ready and trained to implement your monitoring plan
29 Questions and Answers Any Question on NESHAP Compliance? Any Questions on Sorbent Trap Sampling?Any Questions Regarding Traps or Data?
30 your partner for mercury measurement success OHIO LUMEX COMPANYyour partner for mercury measurement successThank You for AttendingShawn WoodPhone:Fax:Cell: