Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements. Oldest Concrete Found To Date n dates around 7000 BC — a lime concrete floor found during the construction.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements. Oldest Concrete Found To Date n dates around 7000 BC — a lime concrete floor found during the construction."— Presentation transcript:

1 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements

2 Oldest Concrete Found To Date n dates around 7000 BC — a lime concrete floor found during the construction of a road at Yiftah El in Galilee, Israel.

3 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Beginning of the Industry n Portland cement was first patented in 1824 n Named after the natural limestone quarried on the Isle of Portland in the English Channel

4 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Portland Cement First Produced n North America 1871— Coplay, Pennsylvania n Canada 1889 — Hull, Quebec

5 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements

6 Primary Components of Raw Materials Necessary for Portland Cement Manufacture n Calcium n Silica n Alumina n Iron

7 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements CalciumIronSilicaAluminaSulfate Alkali waste Aragonite Calcite Cement-kiln dust Cement rock Chalk Clay Fuller’s earth Limestone Marble Marl Seashells Shale Slag Blast-furnace flue dust Clay Iron ore Mill scale Ore washings Pyrite cinders Shale Calcium silicate Cement rock Clay Fly ash Fuller’s earth Limestone Loess Marl Ore washings Quartzite Rice-hull ash Sand Sandstone Shale Slag Traprock Aluminum-ore refuse Bauxite Cement rock Clay Copper slag Fly ash Fuller’s earth Granodiorite Limestone Loess Ore washings Shale Slag Staurolite Anhydrite Calcium sulfate Gypsum

8 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Quarry

9 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Traditional Manufacture of Portland Cement 1. Stone is first reduced to 125 mm (5 in.) size, then to 20 mm (3/4 in.), and stored.

10 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements 2.Raw materials are ground to powder and blended. or 2. Raw materials are ground, mixed with water to form slurry, and blended.

11 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements 3.Burning changes raw mix chemically into cement clinker.

12 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements 4. Clinker with gypsum is ground into portland cement and shipped.

13 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements

14

15

16 Dry Process Manufacture of Portland Cement 1. Stone is first reduced to 125 mm (5 in.) size, then to 20 mm (3/4 in.), and stored.

17 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements 2.Raw materials are ground, to powder and blended.

18 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements 3.Burning changes raw mix chemically into clinker. Note four stage preheater, flash furnaces, and shorter kiln.

19 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements 4. Clinker with gypsum is ground into portland cement and shipped

20 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements

21 ClinkerGypsum

22 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Process of Clinker Production (1)

23 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements (2)

24 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements (3)

25 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Portland Cement By definition — a hydraulic cement produced by pulverizing clinker consisting essentially of hydraulic calcium silicates, usually containing one or more of the forms of calcium sulfate as an interground addition.

26 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Types of Portland Cement INormal IANormal, air-entraining IIModerate sulfate resistance IIAModerate sulfate resistance, air- entraining IIIHigh early strength IIIAHigh early strength, air-entraining IVLow heat of hydration VHigh sulfate resistance ASTM C 150 (AASHTO M 85)

27 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements

28 Performance of Concretes Made with Different Cements in Sulfate Soil

29 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Performance of Concretes Made with Different W/C-Ratios in Sulfate Soil

30 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Type II & Type V Sulfate Resistant Cements

31 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Outdoor Sulfate Test Type V Cement W/C-ratio = 0.65 Type V Cement W/C-ratio = 0.39

32 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Moderate and Low Heat Cements

33 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Type III High Early Strength Cements

34 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements White Portland Cement

35 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Blended Hydraulic Cement ASTM C 595 General — a hydraulic cement consisting of two or more inorganic constituents, which contribute to the strength gaining properties of cement.

36 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Blended Cements n Clinker n Gypsum n Portland cement n Fly ash n Slag n Silica Fume n Calcined Clay

37 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Blended Hydraulic Cements Type ISPortland blast-furnace slag cement Type IPPortland-pozzolan cement Type PPortland-pozzolan cement Type I(PM)Pozzolan-modified portland cement Type SSlag cement Type I(SM)Slag-modified portland cement ASTM C 595 (AASHTO M 240)

38 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Hydraulic Cements ASTM C 1157 n First performance specification for hydraulic cements n Cements meet physical performance test requirements rather than prescriptive restrictions on ingredients or cement chemistry as in other cement specifications. n Provides for six types

39 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Hydraulic Cement Type GUGeneral use Type HEHigh early strength Type MSModerate sulfate resistance Type HSHigh sulfate resistance Type MHModerate heat of hydration Type LHLow heat of hydration ASTM C 1157

40 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Cement specification Cement Applications General purpose Moderate heat of hydration High early strength Low heat of hydration Moderate sulfate resistance High sulfate resistance Resistance to alkali-silica reactivity (ASR) ASTM C 150 (AASHTO M 85) portland cements I II (moderate heat option) IIIIVIIV Low alkali option ASTM C 595 (AASHTO M 240) blended hydraulic cements IS IP I(PM) I(SM) S, P IS(MH) IP(MH) I(PM)(MH) I(SM)(MH) P(LH) IS(MS) IP(MS) P(MS) I(PM)(MS) I(SM)(MS) Low reactivity option ASTM C 1157 hydraulic cements GUMHHELHMSHSOption R

41 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Special cementsTypeApplication White portland cements, ASTM C 150 I, II, III, VWhite or colored concrete, masonry, mortar, grout, plaster, and stucco White masonry cements, ASTM C 91 M, S, NWhite mortar between masonry units Masonry cements, ASTM C 91 M, S, NMortar between masonry units, plaster, and stucco Mortar cements, ASTM C 1329 M, S, NMortar between masonry units Plastic cements, ASTM C 1328 M, SPlaster and stucco Expansive cements, ASTM C 845 E-1(K), E-1(M), E-1(S)Shrinkage compensating concrete Oil-well cements, API-10A, B, C, D, E, F, G, HGrouting wells Water-repellent cementsTile grout, paint, and stucco finish coats Regulated-set cementsEarly strength and repair

42 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Special cementsTypeApplication Cements with functional additions, ASTM C 595 (AASHTO M 240), ASTM C 1157 General concrete construction needing special characteristics such as; water-reducing, retarding, air entraining, set control, and accelerating properties Finely ground (ultrafine) cement Geotechnical grouting Calcium aluminate cement Repair, chemical resistance and high temperature exposures Magnesium phosphate cement Repair and chemical resistance Geopolymer cement General construction, repair, waste stabilization Ettringite cementsWaste stabilization Sulfur cementsRepair and chemical resistance Rapid hardening hydraulic cement VH, MR, GC General paving where very rapid (about 4 hours) strength development is required

43 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Masonry Cements Type N —for Type O and Type N mortars and with portland cement for mortar Types S and M Type S —for Type S mortar Type M —for Type M mortar

44 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Stucco using Masonry or Plastic Cements

45 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Finely-Ground Cements Grout penetration in soil

46 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Expansive Cement Concrete

47 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Drinking Water Applications

48 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Chemical Compounds of Portland Cement

49 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Hydration Products

50 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Portland Cement Compound Hydration Reactions (Oxide Notation) 2 (3CaOSiO 2 ) Tricalcium silicate + 11 H 2 O Water = 3CaO2SiO 2 8H 2 O Calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) + 3 (CaOH 2 O) Calcium hydroxide 2 (2CaOSiO 2 ) Dicalcium silicate + 9 H 2 O Water = 3CaO2SiO 2 8H 2 O Calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) + CaOH 2 O Calcium hydroxide 3CaOAl 2 O 3 Tricalcium aluminate + 3 (CaOSO 3 2H 2 O) Gypsum + 26 H 2 O Water = 6CaOAl 2 O 3 3SO 3 32H 2 O Ettringite 2 (3CaOAl 2 O 3 ) Tricalcium aluminate + 6CaOAl 2 O 3 3SO 3 32H 2 O Ettringite + 4 H 2 O Water = 3 (4CaOAl 2 O 3 SO 3 12H 2 O) Calcium monosulfoaluminate 3CaOAl 2 O 3 Tricalcium aluminate + CaOH 2 O Calcium hydroxide + 12 H 2 O Water = 4CaOAl 2 O 3 13H 2 O Tetracalcium aluminate hydrate 4CaO Al 2 O 3 Fe 2 O 3 Tetracalcium aluminoferrite + 10 H 2 O Water + 2 (CaOH 2 O) Calcium hydroxide = 6CaOAl 2 O 3 Fe 2 O 3 12H 2 O Calcium aluminoferrite hydrate

51 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements SEMs of Hardened Cement Paste

52 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements

53

54 Type of portland cement Chemical composition, % SiO 2 Al 2 O 3 Fe 2 O 3 CaOMgOSO 3 Na 2 O eq I (mean) II (mean) III (mean) IV (mean) V (mean) White (mean)

55 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Type of portland cement Potential compound composition,% Blaine fineness m 2 /kg C3SC3SC2SC2SC3AC3AC 4 AF I (mean) II (mean) III (mean) IV (mean) V (mean) White (mean)

56 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Reactivity of Cement Compounds

57 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Nonevaporable Water Contents Hydrated cement compound Nonevaporable (combined) water content (g water/g cement compound) C 3 S hydrate0.24 C 2 S hydrate0.21 C 3 A hydrate0.40 C 4 AF hydrate0.37 Free lime (CaO)0.33

58 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements

59 Scanning-Electron Micrograph of Powdered Cement

60 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Fineness of Cement ASTM C 204 ASTM C 115

61 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Cement Fineness

62 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Particle Size Distribution

63 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Soundness Test ASTM C 151 (AASHTO T 107 )

64 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Consistency of Cement Paste ASTM C 187 (AASHTO T 129) Vicat plunger

65 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Consistency of Mortar ASTM C 230 (AASHTO M 152) and ASTM C 1437 Flow table

66 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Setting Time ASTM C 191 (AASHTO M 131) Vicat apparatus

67 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Setting Time ASTM C 266 (AASHTO M 154) Gillmore needle

68 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Setting Times for Portland Cements

69 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Mortar Cubes ASTM C 109 (AASHTO T 106)

70 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Strength Development of Mortar Cubes

71 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Strength Development Type I and II Cements

72 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Strength Development Type III, IV, and V Cements

73 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements

74

75 Heat of Hydration at 7 Days Type I cement Type II cement Type II Moderate heat cement Type III cement Type IV cement Type V cement % of Type I

76 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Heat Evolution

77 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements

78 Density of Cement Le Chatelier flask ( ASTM C 188 or AASHTO T 133) Helium pycnometer

79 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Bulk Density Bulk density of cement varies between 830 kg/m 3 (52 lb/ft 3 ) and 1650 kg/m 3 (103 lb/ft 3 ).

80 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Thermal Analysis n Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) n Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) n Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)

81 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Differential Scanning Calorimetry Thermogram of a Cement Paste after (a) 15 min and (b) 24 h of Hydration

82 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Virtual Cement Testing

83 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Transporting Cement

84 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Packaging and Storage

85 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Videos 1/7 Cement Types Manufacturing Cement

86 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Videos 2/7 Cement Hydration I Cement Hydration II

87 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Videos 3/7 Cement Hydration Soundness

88 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Videos 4/7 False Set Setting Time

89 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Videos 5/7 Cement FinenessCement Strength

90 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Videos 6/7 Cement Hydration Simulation

91 Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements Videos 7/7 Storage Cement Delivery


Download ppt "Portland, Blended, and Other Hydraulic Cements. Oldest Concrete Found To Date n dates around 7000 BC — a lime concrete floor found during the construction."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google