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Click col mouse per avanzare Salat as performed by various Madh’habs A.S. Hashim, MD 1. Al ‑ Saadiq and the Four Madh'habs, Asad Haidar. 2. Fiqh Al-Sunnah,

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Presentation on theme: "Click col mouse per avanzare Salat as performed by various Madh’habs A.S. Hashim, MD 1. Al ‑ Saadiq and the Four Madh'habs, Asad Haidar. 2. Fiqh Al-Sunnah,"— Presentation transcript:

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3 Salat as performed by various Madh’habs A.S. Hashim, MD 1. Al ‑ Saadiq and the Four Madh'habs, Asad Haidar. 2. Fiqh Al-Sunnah, Syed Saabiq. 3. Fiqh Imam Ja'far Al-Saadiq, Muhammad J. Maghniya. 4. Fiqh according to the five Madh'habs, Muhammad J. Maghniya.

4 Sources of Reference Al ‑ Saadiq and the Four Madh'habs, Asad Haidar. Fiqh Al-Sunnah, Syed Saabiq. Fiqh Imam Ja'far Al-Saadiq, Muhammad J. Maghniya. Fiqh according to the five Madh'habs, Muhammad J. Maghniya.

5 Statistics As of 1995, of the five billions of the total world's population the Muslims constitute 1,236,000,000. Statistically speaking, of this world population, one billion and 236 million are Muslims: The Shi'a (Imamiyah) ,000,000 (282 million), The Sunni: Hanafi: ,000,000 (380 million), Maaliki: ,000,000 (305 million), Shafi'i: ,000,000 (190 million), Hanbali : ,000,000 (52 Million) Others: 27,000,000 (27 million): Others: 27,000,000 (27 million): These include Ahmadiya, Baha'is, Kharijis, Ismailis, Zaidis, Druzes, etc. (by Youssef M’roueh, at Assembly of Ahlul Bayt: held at IEC 1996)

6 Ah'kaam احكام (rules) about the Salat Each Madh'hab goes by specific Ah'kaam (rules) احكام about the Salat according to its interpretation of the Shari'ah and Sunnah. Each Madh'hab goes by specific Ah'kaam (rules) احكام about the Salat according to its interpretation of the Shari'ah and Sunnah. These Ah'kaam (rules) will only be briefly discussed, since the details can be voluminous. To clarify the matter, the subject of Salat has to be divided into 3 categories: To clarify the matter, the subject of Salat has to be divided into 3 categories: 1. Salat preliminaries (Wudu, Athan, etc.), 2. The Salat itself, and 3. Invalidators of Salat. 3. Invalidators of Salat.

7 FIQH: الفـقه The Fiqh is the summation of the rules and regulations formulated by the leader of the Madh'hab according to certain methodology (format) formulated by that Madh'hab. Each of the Shi'a and the Sunni schools has its particular Fiqh. Each of the Shi'a and the Sunni schools has its particular Fiqh. Therefore, the rules of one Madh'hab may differ in subtle or not so subtle ways from other Madh'habs. A Hanafi may differ from a Shafi'i and Hanbali, a Maaliki may differ from Hanafi or Shafi'i or Shi'a.

8 WUDU: الوضوء POINTS FOR DISCUSSION 1. The Face: 2. The Forearms: 3. The Head: 4. The Feet:

9 WUDU: 1. The Face The Shi'a: Wash the face with the right hand from upper forehead to the chin, with the span of the hand as the outer limit. Because of disagreement of what defines face, the following have different approach: Hanafi: From upper forehead to and including the chin, and from ear to ear including the ear lobe. Maaliki: From upper forehead to and including the chin, not including the skin in front of the ear. Shafi'i: From upper forehead to and including the chin under the chin area, and from ear to ear. Hanbali: From upper forehead to and including the chin, and ear to ear.

10 WUDU: 2. The Forearms The Shi'a: Wash the right arm (including the hand) from the elbow down (including hand) with the left hand; then likewise wash the left arm from the elbow down with the right hand. The Sunni: Wash the right arm (including the hand) up to the elbow with the left hand; then wash the left arm (including the hand) up to the elbow with the right hand.

11 WUDU: 3. The Head The Shi'a wipe the front of the head with the wet four fingers from the center of the head to the front. The Shi'a wipe the front of the head with the wet four fingers from the center of the head to the front. But because of disagreement of what defines surface area of the head, the Fiqh of the Sunni concluded as follows: Hanafi: With new water, to wipe a quarter of the head (others say a third of the head). Maaliki: With new water, to wipe the whole head (others say a third or two thirds of the head), without the ears. Shafi'i: Similar to the Shi'a, but with new water. Hanbali: With new water, to wipe the whole head including the ears.

12 WUDU: 4. The feet In interpreting the Ayah of Wudu (in Surah Al- Maa'ida): The Shi'a The Shi'a wipe the dorsal part of the feet up to the cubicle (height of foot), with the wet corresponding hand, first the right then the left. The Sunni: The Hanafi, Maaliki, Shafi'i, and Hanbali: Wash the whole foot, up to the ankle. Wash the whole foot, up to the ankle. Some do it once, others twice or even three times.

13 WUDU: Other Procedures Variable rulings depending on the Madh’hab: 1.Covered Feet: 2.Gargling and/or Mouth-rinsing: 3.Sniffing: 4.Ears: 5.Neck (Tat'weeq):

14 WUDU: Covered Feet The Shi'a: prohibit wiping over the dorsal part of the covered feet, whether covered with socks of any kind, or light shoes. The Shi'a: prohibit wiping over the dorsal part of the covered feet, whether covered with socks of any kind, or light shoes. The Sunni: The Hanafi, Maaliki, Shafi'i, and Hanbali do allow wiping over socks or light shoes, however, the rules in this regard are divergent. The Hanafi, Maaliki, Shafi'i, and Hanbali do allow wiping over socks or light shoes, however, the rules in this regard are divergent. Also to thus wipe only when traveling for a period of 3 days without taking off the cover of the feet, or being at home for a period (usually one day) and doing so, led to many arguments.

15 WUDU: Hands It is preferable (Mus’tahab) to wash the hands before Wudu, not only with the Shi'a but also with the Sunni. It is preferable (Mus’tahab) to wash the hands before Wudu, not only with the Shi'a but also with the Sunni. The differences were about the number of times the hands are to be washed. The differences were about the number of times the hands are to be washed. The Hanbali differed from others in regarding washing the hands before Wudu as a Must (Wajib).

16 WUDU: Gargling and/or Mouth-rinsing WUDU: Gargling and/or Mouth-rinsing It is preferable (Mus’tahab) to gargle and/or to rinse the mouth before Wudu, not only with the Shi'a but also with the Sunni. It is preferable (Mus’tahab) to gargle and/or to rinse the mouth before Wudu, not only with the Shi'a but also with the Sunni. The differences were about the number of times gargling and/or rinsing are to take place. The differences were about the number of times gargling and/or rinsing are to take place. The Hanbali differed from others in that they regard gargling and/or rinsing the mouth before Wudu as a Must (Wajib).

17 WUDU: Sniffing It is preferable (Mus’tahab) to clean the nose by sniffing then blowing it, before Wudu, not only with the Shi'a but also with the Sunni. It is preferable (Mus’tahab) to clean the nose by sniffing then blowing it, before Wudu, not only with the Shi'a but also with the Sunni. The differences are about the number of times to do the procedure and the technique of doing it.

18 WUDU: Ears Shi'a prohibit including the ears in the Wudu, Sunni differ whether the ears are part of the head and therefore are to be cleaned, and if so how to be cleaned, and whether this is Mus'tahab (preferable) or not: Hanafi: Wiping the ears as Sunnah, to be done along with wiping the head. Maaliki: Wiping the ears as part of the head as preferable (Mus’tahab). Shafi'i: Wiping the ears with new water as Sunnah. Hanbali: Wiping the ears as a Must (Wajib), to be done along with wiping the head.

19 WUDU: Neck (Tat'weeq) Shi'a prohibit including the neck in the Wudu, Sunni differed whether to include it and whether this is Mus'tahab (preferable) or as a sign of reverence, or even Mak'rooh to do so. Sunni differed whether to include it and whether this is Mus'tahab (preferable) or as a sign of reverence, or even Mak'rooh to do so. However, some of the Hanafi and Shafi'i seem to allow it.

20 ATHAN: الأذان Shi’a: Ash'hadu Anna Aliyyan Waliyu-llaah (I declare that Ali is the Devotee of Allah) (This is Mus’tahab (preferable) Hayya Ala Khayr Al-amal (Hasten for the best of deeds) Laa Ilaaha Illa Allah (There is no Deity except Allah) said twice Sunni: Al-salatu Khayrun Mina Nawm (Salat is better than sleep)

21 Athan الأذان Shi'a, Hanafi, Maaliki, and Shafi'i say Athan is a Sunnahسنه, near Wajib (a Must). Al-Hanbali regards Athan as Fardh (a must) Takbiraat: التـكبـيـرات All say Takbiraat 4 times except the Maaliki who say it 2 times. Takbiraat: التـكبـيـرات All say Takbiraat 4 times except the Maaliki who say it 2 times. Wali: ولي As an option (Mus’tahab) the Shi'a say Ali is the devotee of Allah twice. None of the Sunni Madh'habs say it. Wali: ولي As an option (Mus’tahab) the Shi'a say Ali is the devotee of Allah twice. None of the Sunni Madh'habs say it. Hayya Ala Khayr Al-Amal: حي على خـيـر العـمـلIt is a must (Wajib) for the Shi'a, since this was said by the Prophet (pbuh), Abu Bakr, and early days of Omar's Khilaafah, as well as continued by Ibn Omar, Ali ibn Al-Husain, Zayd ibn Arqam, Imam Ali and numerous others all through. Hayya Ala Khayr Al-Amal: حي على خـيـر العـمـلIt is a must (Wajib) for the Shi'a, since this was said by the Prophet (pbuh), Abu Bakr, and early days of Omar's Khilaafah, as well as continued by Ibn Omar, Ali ibn Al-Husain, Zayd ibn Arqam, Imam Ali and numerous others all through. None of the Hanafi, Maaliki, Shafi'i, or Hanbali says it. None of the Hanafi, Maaliki, Shafi'i, or Hanbali says it. Al-Salat Khayrun mina Al-Nawm: The Shi'a do not say it in their Athan or Iqaama. But the Sunni say it twice in their Athan or Iqaama for the Salat of the morning.

22 SALAT ITSELF SUBJECTS TO BE DISCUSSED: 1. Takbir, 2. (Wuqoof). Arms' Position 3. (Bas'malah): Bismillah Al ‑ Rahman Al-Rahim. 4. Amen 5. Complete Surah After Al ‑ Fatiha: 6. Variation in the Third & Forth Rak'a 7. Rukoo 8. Sujood 9. Qunoot 10. Juloos (forefinger) 11. Juloos (feet Position) 12. Tashah'hud 13. Tasleem

23 SALAT: Takbir Iftitah: التكبـير To say Allaahu Akbar after the intention to pray is Wajib (a Must) with the Shi'a, Maaliki, and Hanbali. Hanafi may say any of the wordings of Al- Asmaa Al-Husna, yet Abu Yusuf of the Hanafi Madh’hab prefers the Shi'a ruling. Shafi'i may say Allah Al-Akbar. (they have added Al, meaning the).

24 SALAT: Takattuf التـكـتــــــف SALAT: Takattuf التـكـتــــــف The Shi'a, along with the Maaliki do not fold their arms while in Wuqoof (No Takattuf التـكـتــــــف), though it is allowed if believed as an option of reverence on the part of the person praying. The Shi'a, along with the Maaliki do not fold their arms while in Wuqoof (No Takattuf التـكـتــــــف), though it is allowed if believed as an option of reverence on the part of the person praying. It is said that folding the arms was started after the Prophet (pbuh). Hanafi, Shafi'i, and Hanbali: Regard folding the arms as preferable (Mus’tahab) as a sign of reverence, therefore, they subscribe to folding the arms during Wuqoof, however they differ in the manner the right arm is put on the left, whether on lower chest or its upper, in a female different from a male. Maaliki regards folding the arms, if done, as allowed, but not a Sunnah.

25 SALAT: Bas'malah: البسـمـله Shi'a start the Surahs by saying Bismillah Al-Rahman Al- Rahim (Bas'malah), as part of the Surah, they are to say it loud enough to be heard. they are to say it loud enough to be heard. The Prophet (pbuh) used to start Al-Fatiha with Bas'malah but Mu'awiya was the means in deleting it. Hanafi, and Maaliki: They regard Bas'malah as not part of Surah Fatiha, so they read Surah Al-Fatiha without it, though they have the option to say it. Hanafi, and Maaliki: They regard Bas'malah as not part of Surah Fatiha, so they read Surah Al-Fatiha without it, though they have the option to say it. However, they say Bas'malah with the subsequent Surahs. However, they say Bas'malah with the subsequent Surahs. Also, the Hanafi and Hanbali can read it without being heard. Also, the Hanafi and Hanbali can read it without being heard. Maaliki would not read at all. Shafi'i and Hanbali: Regard Bas'malah as part and parcel of Al-Fatiha, and has to be said loudly.

26 SALAT: Ameen آمـيـن SALAT: Ameen آمـيـن Shi'a Fiqh prohibits saying Ameen during Salat, because Ameen is a Hebrew word. Shi'a Fiqh prohibits saying Ameen during Salat, because Ameen is a Hebrew word. Instead of Ameen, the Shi'a say Al-Hamdu Lillaah. However they can say “Ameen” when not in Salat. However they can say “Ameen” when not in Salat. Hanafi, Maaliki, Shafi'i, and Hanbali: As Mus’tahab (preferable) they say Ameen after reading of the Fatiha during Salat. Hanafi, Maaliki, Shafi'i, and Hanbali: As Mus’tahab (preferable) they say Ameen after reading of the Fatiha during Salat. They follow Abu Humaira narration to utter “Ameen” after Al-Fatiha, but the Shi'a claim that that specific narration was not credible

27 SALAT: Complete Surah: سـوره كامـله SALAT: Complete Surah: سـوره كامـله Shi'a a complete (not partial) Surah has to be said following Al-Fatiha during Salat, and without this rule the Salat is invalidated. Shi'a a complete (not partial) Surah has to be said following Al-Fatiha during Salat, and without this rule the Salat is invalidated. Hanafi, Maaliki, Shafi'i, and Hanbali: are divided about this point, for instance, with the Hanafi portion of a Surah is sufficient, even one Ayah.

28 SALAT: Qunoot: القـنـوت Shi'a Qunoot is highly recommended after the second Rak’a. Qunoot is saying a Du'aa, usually a passage from the Holy Quran. Qunoot is saying a Du'aa, usually a passage from the Holy Quran. Hanafi, Maaliki, Shafi'i, and Hanbali: Qunoot is not practiced regularly during regular Salat. Hanafi, Maaliki, Shafi'i, and Hanbali: Qunoot is not practiced regularly during regular Salat. It was Mu'awiya who stopped it. It was Mu'awiya who stopped it. As it evolved, Qunoot is now said during Subh Salat (morning prayer) by the Maaliki and Shafi'i. As it evolved, Qunoot is now said during Subh Salat (morning prayer) by the Maaliki and Shafi'i. As to the Hanafi and Hanbali, they say Qunoot during Witr Salat in various manners.

29 SALAT: Forefinger: اصـبع السـبابـه Shi'a do not point with the forefinger while in Tashah'hud. Shi'a do not point with the forefinger while in Tashah'hud. The Hanafi and Shafi'i do point with the forefinger while in Tashah’hud and even move it in a circular manner, It is regarded as a preferable (Mus'tahab) procedure.

30 SALAT: Toe: اصـبع القدم Shi'a are to sit comfortably on the folded feet during Tashah'hud, The Hanafi sit on a slightly twisted left foot while the big toe of the right foot is touching the floor.

31 SALAT: Tashah'hud: التـشــهـد Shi'a follow the version of Tashah'hud as taught by Ahlul Bayt quoting the Prophet (pbuh). Hanafi follow the Tashah'hud taught by Ibn Mas'ood, quoting the Prophet (pbuh). Maaliki follow the Tashah'hud taught by Ibn Omar, quoting the Prophet (pbuh). Shafi'i and Hanbali follow the Tashah'hud taught by Ibn Abbas, quoting the Prophet (pbuh).

32 SALAT: Tasleem: التـسـلـيـم SALAT: Tasleem: التـسـلـيـم Shi'a follow the version of Tasleem as taught by Ahlul Bayt quoting the Prophet (pbuh). Shi'a follow the version of Tasleem as taught by Ahlul Bayt quoting the Prophet (pbuh). Tasleem is a Must (Wajib). Tasleem is a Must (Wajib). Hanafi, Shafi'i, and Hanbali do Tasleem in various forms as appears in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim. Hanafi, Shafi'i, and Hanbali do Tasleem in various forms as appears in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim. Tasleem is regarded as Wajib (a Must) by the Maaliki, Shafi'i and Hanbali; Tasleem is regarded as Sunnah by the Hanafi.

33 OTHER SALATS TO BE DISCUSSED 1. Salat Al-Janaaza: صـــلاه الجنـازه 2. Salat Al-Jumu'ah: صــلاه الجـمعه 3. Salat Al-Eid: صـلاه العـيـد 4. Salat of Nafal (Sunnah): صـلاه نافله او صـلاه ألسـنه

34 Salat Al-Janaaza: صـلاه الجنازه Shi'a say 5 Takbiraat with Al-Fatiha not as a Must (not Wajib), Hanafi, Maaliki, Shafi'i, and Hanbali: differed whether Fatiha is a Must (Wajib) or not. differed whether Fatiha is a Must (Wajib) or not. The Sunni Madh'habs say 4 Takbiraats, with Hanafi and Maaliki not requiring Al-Fatiha as a Must; while the Shafi'i and Hanbali claim Al- Fatiha as a Must reading.

35 Salat Al-Jumu'ah: صلاه الجمعه Shi'a do Qunoot (Du'aa) before Rukoo in the first Rak'a and optionally a Qunoot after Rukoo in the second Rak'a. optionally a Qunoot after Rukoo in the second Rak'a. The minimum number of attendants is to be 5. The minimum number of attendants is to be 5. Hanafi, Maaliki, Shafi'i, and Hanbali: do not perform Qunoot during Salat al-Jumu’ah, and minimum number of attendants with Hanafi is 5 (others say 7), Maaliki 12, Shafi'i and Hanbali 40.

36 Salat Al-Eid: صـلاه العـيد Salat Al-Eid: صـلاه العـيد Shi'a along with Shafi'i can perform Salat Eid individually as well as in congregation, Hanafi, Maaliki, and Hanbali it has to be only in congregation. Hanafi, Maaliki, and Hanbali it has to be only in congregation. The Shi'a do Qunoot with a poetic Du'aa after each of 5 Takbirs in the first Rak'a, and 4 Takbirs of the 2nd Rak'a. The Shi'a do Qunoot with a poetic Du'aa after each of 5 Takbirs in the first Rak'a, and 4 Takbirs of the 2nd Rak'a. Other Madh'habs have various number of Takbiraat without Qunoot.

37 Salat of Nafal (Sunnah): صلاه نافله او صـلاه ألسنه Salat of Nafal (Sunnah): Specific number of Rak’as and the order of Rak’as before or after the obligatory Salat of the Shi’a as well as the Sunni Madh'habs. Other Salats: For other Salats such as Salat for earthquake, Kusoof and Khusoof, the details are more than this chapter is intended for.

38 SALAT PARAMETERS 1. Timing 2. Sujood Requirements 3. Place Requirements 4. Men's Clothing Requirements 5. Women's Clothing Requirements

39 Time of Salat: أوقات الصلاه Shi'a allows praying Dhuhr Salat to be followed by Asr, (in this order), from Zawal (mid-day) till before sun-set. Shi'a allows praying Dhuhr Salat to be followed by Asr, (in this order), from Zawal (mid-day) till before sun-set. It also allows praying Maghrib Salat to be followed by Ishaa', (in this order), from after sun-set Ghuroob) till mid-night. It also allows praying Maghrib Salat to be followed by Ishaa', (in this order), from after sun-set Ghuroob) till mid-night. Since this makes it convenient for them, with less chance of missing Salats and less interruption of work, many Shi'a choose this option though it is less meritorious than performing Salat strictly on the appointed times. Since this makes it convenient for them, with less chance of missing Salats and less interruption of work, many Shi'a choose this option though it is less meritorious than performing Salat strictly on the appointed times. They refer to many Traditions of the Prophet (pbuh) whereby the Prophet (pbuh) prayed Dhuhr followed by Asr (and Maghrib followed by Ishaa') at times of no travel, fear, or rain. Hanafi: Perform Salat at specified time, but differed about defining those times. Maaliki, and Hanbali make available two options, one of choice and one of necessity. Maaliki, and Hanbali make available two options, one of choice and one of necessity. Shafi'i do likewise but with other specifications

40 Sujood Medium: موضع السجود Shi'a emphasize putting the forehead on pure earth, paper, non edibles or non wearable. Shi'a emphasize putting the forehead on pure earth, paper, non edibles or non wearable. No Sujood can be done on fabric, rugs, metal, etc. No Sujood can be done on fabric, rugs, metal, etc. Most Shi'a do Sujood on Turbah تـربــــه (A clay kept clean for Sujood, and no one is allowed to trample on it or make it dirty, otherwise it is to be replaced. Most Shi'a do Sujood on Turbah تـربــــه (A clay kept clean for Sujood, and no one is allowed to trample on it or make it dirty, otherwise it is to be replaced. Also, while in Sujood, the Shi'a exclude the tip of the nose to touch the ground. Hanafi, Maaliki, Shafi'i, and Hanbali allow Sujood on variable media, including rugs, cloths, metal, and earth. Hanafi, Maaliki, Shafi'i, and Hanbali allow Sujood on variable media, including rugs, cloths, metal, and earth. Some require the tip of the nose to touch the ground as part of Sujood, along with some specifics about that

41 العـوره Cover (Ow'ra) العـوره Cover (Ow'ra) Ow'ra is the part of the body to be covered, especially during Salat. Ow'ra is the part of the body to be covered, especially during Salat. For men the Shi'a subscribe to covering the pelvic part, better still from the umbilicus to the knees (covering them). For men the Shi'a subscribe to covering the pelvic part, better still from the umbilicus to the knees (covering them). The Sunni Madh'habs have minor variations from the Shi'a. The Sunni Madh'habs have minor variations from the Shi'a. As to women, they should cover everything except the face, hands, and the feet. As to women, they should cover everything except the face, hands, and the feet. Some Sunnis include the feet as Ow'ra. Some Sunnis include the feet as Ow'ra.

42 SALAT INVALIDATORS SALAT INVALIDATORS Discharges (Going to the bathroom (urinating, having a bowel movement, passing gas). Other Discharges (The flow of blood or pus from any part of the body, including the monthly periods of the female and the sexual discharge of the male.) Vomiting Falling asleep. Consciousness: Losing one's reason whatever the cause.

43 Invalidators during Salat: (Shi'a): Turning: To turn left, right or to the back while in Salat will invalidate the Salat. Talking: No talking, even to utter two letters (other than the Salat itself). Laughing: No laughing, whether loud or not loud. Crying: Any form of crying is unacceptable except crying out of Awe to the Almighty. Eating: No eating or drinking while in Salat. Walking: No walking during Salat.

44 Invalidators during Salat: (Sunni) In addition to the invalidators specified by the Shi'a, the Sunni add: Hanafi add clearing the throat, whining, reading of the Mus'haf or performing Sujood on unclean spot, among other things. Maaliki add “not-saying the intention”, blowing, or making noise among other points. Shafi'i and Hanbali add whining if two letters are recognized in it, in addition to many other complex conditions.

45 يصلون على النبي How come? ان الله وملائكته يصلون على النبي يا ايها الذين امنوا صلوا عليه وسلموا تسليما

46 Meaning of: يصلون على Bless: ان الله وملائكته يصلون على النبي يا ايها الذين امنوا صلوا عليه وسلموا تسليما Allah sends His blessings on the Holy Prophet. The angels invoke Allah to send His blessings on him. The believers are also commanded to invoke Allah to send His blessings on him. The Muslims asked the Holy Prophet: "How are we to seek blessings on you?" He said: "Say: 'O Allah, send blessings on Muhammad and on the Aal (progeny) of Muhammad."

47 Finally we quote the Quran: In the Name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate By the Token of Time Verily Man is in loss, Except those who believe and do good works, and exhort one another to Truth and exhort one another to patience. بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ وَالْعَصْرِ إِنَّ اِلانسَانَ لَفِي خُسْرٍ إِلا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالْحَقِّ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالصَّبْرِ

48 THANK YOU Be in Allah’s Care Dr. A.S. Hashim


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