Presentation on theme: "Bridging metropolitan growth and regional zoning in Greater Des Moines, Iowa U.S. Authors: Monica A. Haddad, Shannon Thol, and Gary Taylor Image source:"— Presentation transcript:
Bridging metropolitan growth and regional zoning in Greater Des Moines, Iowa U.S. Authors: Monica A. Haddad, Shannon Thol, and Gary Taylor Image source: www.dmgov.org/
Project Background Sustainable Communities regional planning Sustainable Communities: “stimulate more integrated and sophisticated regional planning to guide state, metropolitan, and local investments in land use, transportation and housing, as well as to challenge localities to undertake zoning and land use reforms” (HUD, 2013) Success Success “depends specifically on the physical, cultural, and political context of a given metropolitan area, its sources and strength of leadership, the breadth of organizational participation, the technical capacity of the combined organizational team, and the institutional governance structure” (Knaap and Lewis, 2011, p. 205)
Project background Planning project focused on sustainable development 15 objectives, including: “Increased use of compact development as a tool for regional planning to accommodate population growth, to utilize infrastructure efficiently, and to preserve productive agricultural land and natural areas for environmental and recreational purposes” (The Tomorrow Plan 2012).
Our Approach physical context Need to study the physical context of the area to ensure regional planning is successful Past trends in metropolitan growth, and the relationship between growth and current land use planning/development regulations The influence of development regulations on the density and rate of development must be understood for any effort to limit urban sprawl to be effective 1)Examine 1)Examine spatial patterns of development in Greater Des Moines over the period 2000-2010 2)Analyze 2)Analyze the types of zoning categories in which this development occurred
Our Methodology 1.Classification of land covers 2.Identification of new development 3.Development of a regional unified zoning
Remote sensing methods Obtain Landsat satellite imagery Unsupervised classifications Preprocess Landsat imagery Assign spectral classes to informational classes Coordinate system: UTM Zone 15N with NAD 1983 datum Land cover accuracy assessment 2000 land cover map 2010 land cover map “New development” map Products: Post-classification change detection New development accuracy assessment
Landsat imagery Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) – Level 1T (terrain corrected) images obtained from USGS (www.glovis.usgs.gov)www.glovis.usgs.gov – Study area covered by Path 26/Row 31 – Multi-temporal data used to capture seasonal variability of vegetation YearDateSpatial resolution (GSD)Radiometric resolution 20001-Jun30 m8 bit 200024-Nov30 m8 bit 201015-Jul30 m8 bit 20103-Oct30 m8 bit Summer Fall
Land cover classifications ISODATA classifications in ENVI 5.0 softw. ( Yuan et al., 2005) – 100 spectral classes – 60 iterations, 1% change thresholds Ancillary road data – From IADOT (2000 and 2010) – Burned into built-up class Built-up non-reversal rule – 2000 built-up land burned into 2010 results Land cover classes 1 – Built-up land 2 - Seasonally flooded 3 - Trees 4 - Crop land & grasses 5 - Water 6 - Cloud 7 - Cloud shadow
New development accuracy Raw results Final results (remove Islets) User’sProducer’s User’sProducer’s New development72%98% 92%98% No development98%78% 98%93% Total accuracy85% 95% Kappa statistic0.71 0.91
Top five municipalities with new development Percentage of total for the study area Municipality New development 2000-2010 All land Vacant land 2000 Ankeny184.108.40.206 West Des Moines220.127.116.11 Urbandale18.104.22.168 Johnston22.214.171.124 Waukee126.96.36.199
Defined unified zoning classification system ZoneNameClassification A-1AgricultureAgricultural zones with residential densities of one housing unit per 10 acres or lower densities A-2Agricultural TransitionAgricultural zones with residential densities greater than one housing unit per 10 acres C-1Neighborhood Commercial/Professional Office Small areas for offices, professional services, and shopfront retail. In scale with surrounding neighborhood C-2Office Park/Clean IndustryBusiness and industry complexes, including research, high tech, corporate HQ, regional distribution C-3General CommercialA catch-all classification. Allows a broad range of general commercial operations C-4Highway-Oriented CommercialLocated along major arterials. Big box retail with ample parking. Allows auto-oriented services C-5Large Scale CommercialRegional shopping centers, power centers, the agglomeration of numerous retail/commercial services in a single complex under single ownership C-6DowntownConcentrated downtown retail, service, office and mixed uses in existing central business districts C-7Urban Core CBDThe extreme CBD character of downtown Des Moines GOVGovernmentGovernment zones and land M-1Limited IndustrialLight and limited types of industrial uses M-2General IndustrialGeneral industrial uses M-3Heavy IndustrialHeavy industrial uses MUMixed-UseNon-PUD zones which allow a mix of land-uses on the same parcel OSOpen SpaceAll types of open space such as floodways, conservation areas, etc PUD_RPlanned Residential DevelopmentPUD zones which allow only residential development PUD_MUPlanned Unit DevelopmentPUD zones which do not restrict development to just residential R-AResidential AgriculturalResidential areas with <1 Housing Units/Acre R-1Residential EstateResidential areas with 1-3 Housing Units/Acre R-2Low-Density ResidentialResidential areas with 4-7 Housing Units/Acre R-3Moderate-Density ResidentialResidential areas with 8-11 Housing Units/Acre R-4High-Density ResidentialResidential areas with 12-19 Housing Units/Acre R-5Urban High-Density ResidentialResidential areas with 20+ Housing Units/Acre R-6Mobile Home ResidentialMobile Home Park
Top five zones with new development Percentage of total for the study area Generalized zoning category New development 2000-2010 All land Vacant land 2000 PUD_MU188.8.131.52 R-219.311.39.7 Not defined184.108.40.206 M-220.127.116.11 R-18.104.22.168
Conclusion 15% There was a 15% increase in the built-up area of the region, and a decrease in crop land & grass land cover peri- urban region The majority of new development occurred in the peri- urban region, in the western and northern suburbs expansion Most development appeared to be in the form of urban expansion not infill It is important to note that we did not explicitly test for or address infill development in our analyses Purposeful: Purposeful: development did not happen in these locations simply because there was nowhere else to build
Conclusion Other factors such as population pressure and changes in the economic structure of the region affect spatial patterns of development This is an important area that should be targeted for future research PUDs, which are a special category of zoning that provide a lot of flexibility to the city and developers, was the predominant class
Conclusion In creating the RUZ we observed that there is a mosaic of local governments working independently to plan for their own future growth At the time of writing this paper it is difficult to say with any confidence that the Tomorrow Plan will result in a more robust regional approach to land use planning and regulation It is more likely that the plan will act as a catalyst for further conversations about collaboration among the region's municipalities
References HUD (2013) 10 Feb. 2013, http://portal.hud.gov/hudportal/HUD Knaap, G. and Lewis R. (2011) Regional planning for sustainability and hegemony of metropolitan regionalism. In Regional Planning in America: Practice and Prospect. Eds. Ethan Seltzer and Armando Carbonell. Cambridge MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy p. 176-221 Yuan F., Bauer M.E., Heinert N.J., and Holden G.R. (2005) Multi- level Land Cover Mapping of the Twin Cities (Minnesota) Metropolitan Area with Multi-seasonal Landsat TM/ETM+ Data. Geocarto International, 20(2): 5-14.
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