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Foreclosure Mediation Program

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1 Foreclosure Mediation Program

2 Mortgage Foreclosure Filings in Cook County
,705 ,228 ,450 ,815 ,632 ,494 ,248 ,651 ,876 ,049

3 Mortgage Foreclosure Filings in Cook County
2010 Estimated foreclosure case filings: 48,000 – 52,000 60,766 mortgage foreclosure cases were pending as of March 31, 2010

4 Chicago Volunteer Legal Services “CVLS”
Funded in 1964 Largest, non-government funded Over 2,900 volunteers In 2009, CVLS provided free legal services to 17,427 low income people in the Chicago area

5 CVLS Contact Information Patricia Nelson, Director of Foreclosure Mediation Program ; Natalie Weidemier, Attorney Support Supervisor ; Rebekah Rashidfarokhi, Staff Attorney ; Shirley Chiu, Staff Attorney ; Veronica Rodriguez, Foreclosure Mediation Administrator ;

6 Access to Justice Court appointed by the Chancery Division
Full legal representation for pro-se litigants cases/year Possible representation for foreclosure cases that do not settle in mediation

7 Default Foreclosure Timeline
January – March Pre-Complaint: 3 missed payments April Complaint: Filed Late April Jurisdiction: Service June Case Mgmt Date: No Appearance filed July Motion for Default Judgment entered November Sale: No notice if default December Sale Confirmed: OP stayed for 30 days

8 Contested Foreclosure Timeline
January – March Pre-Complaint: 3 missed payments April Complaint: Filed Late April Jurisdiction: Service June Case Mgmt Date: No Appearance filed July Motion for Default Judgment: Borrower appears and requests time to file Appearance & Answer. Judge grants 30 days

9 Contested Foreclosure Timeline
August Borrower files Appearance & Answer Late August Borrower issues Discovery to Lender Late April Jurisdiction: Service November Lender partially responds to Discovery December Borrower sends 201(k) letter January, 2011 Lender complies w/ Discovery

10 Contested Foreclosure Timeline
February Motion for Summary Judgment: Borrower requests Briefing Schedule (28 days to Respond, 14 to Reply) and Hearing Date May Summary Judgment entered – sale cannot take place for 90 days September Sale October Confirmation of Sale, OP stayed for 30 days November Borrower must relinquish possession of property

11 Mediation Process Timeline
January – March Pre-Complaint: 3 missed payments April Complaint: Filed Late April Jurisdiction: Service Early May Borrower calls Hotline on Summons, receives appt. to meet w/ HUD and CLC Mid-May Borrower meets w/ HUD counselor & begins loan mod process. Borrower meets w/ CLC attorney who reviews for legal defenses & assists with Appearance, Answer, Mtn Mediation

12 Mediation Process Timeline
June Case Mgmt Date: Mediation Order entered, CVLS appointed CVLS and Plaintiff’s attorney receive Notice of Mediation date. Date will be scheduled w/in 5 weeks of Case Management Date CVLS volunteer (YOU) agree to accept case July You meet w/ client – either personally or over phone

13 Mediation Process Timeline
July Plaintiff’s attorney to negotiate loan mod. No agreement reached August Mediation- case settles w/ a desired loan mod Receive final written agreement, client executes September 12 Week Post-Mediation Status: You are not required to attend. Plaintiff dismisses case

14 Retention Options Borrower Remains in the Property
Loan Modification Lender modifies one or more of these terms: - Interest Rate - Term of the Loan - Principal Two types: HAMP & Non-HAMP

15 Retention Options Borrower Remains in the Property
HAMP Loan Modification Federal program Monthly mortgage payment no more than 31% of gross income Modification sequence: reduce interest rate, extend term of the loan, forbear principal

16 Retention Options Borrower Remains in the Property
Forbearance Lender agrees not to accept payments for a specified period of time Unemployed borrowers or those experiencing a temporary, finite loss of income UP Program

17 Retention Options Borrower Remains in the Property
Repayment Borrower pays arrearages (missed payments, attorney’s fees, lender’s costs) over a period of time, usually 6-12 months Borrower must make regular mortgage payment in addition to repayment amount Unrealistic for most borrowers

18 Retention Options Borrower Remains in the Property
Chapter 13 Bankruptcy Stays foreclosure if filed before the sale Borrower’s debt, including mortgage arrearages, consolidated and borrower makes monthly payment to trustee Borrower must make regular mortgage payment as well Last alternative – negative impact on credit

19 Non-Retention Options Borrower Surrenders Possession of Property
Deed in Lieu of Foreclosure Borrower deeds property to lender and lender agrees not to pursue personal deficiency Why? Credit score, cannot reinstate, no equity Why not? Cook County judges rarely grant personal deficiency judgments, less time in the property, credit still negatively impacted

20 Non-Retention Options Borrower Surrenders Possession of Property
Consent Judgment Similar to DIL except 2nd mortgage on property 2nd mortgagee bound if proper notice & does not object 2nd mortgagee can later file a collection case based on the Note even though mortgage foreclosed

21 Non-Retention Options Borrower Surrenders Possession of Property
Short Sale Sale price does not cover outstanding mortgage Lender approval required Amount forgiven IS taxable if investment property

22 Non-Retention Options Borrower Surrenders Possession of Property
Cash for Keys DIL variation Lender pays Borrower to timely vacate home w/out destroying property Lender avoids incurring eviction costs

23 Non-Retention Options Borrower Surrenders Possession of Property
Exit w/ Post-Foreclosure Rental Lenders’ inventory of foreclosed homes are increasing which may serve as an incentive to rent the property to the Borrower

24 Non-Retention Options Borrower Surrenders Possession of Property
Chapter 7 Bankruptcy Chapter 7 will not stay the foreclosure Chapter 7 will release Borrower from any debt, including any potential deficiency judgment

25 James Brady Legal Assistance Foundation of Metropolitan Chicago
OVERVIEW OF HAMP James Brady Legal Assistance Foundation of Metropolitan Chicago

26 OVERVIEW What is HAMP? How does HAMP work?
What loans are eligible? How do you figure that out? How does HAMP work? Waterfall for payment reduction NPV test Trial modifications Denials Bankruptcy How does HAMP impact litigation? Stopping a foreclosure Waiver Problems Related programs

27 WHAT IS HAMP? Home Affordable Modification Program
Component of Making Home Affordable initiative. Voluntary incentive-based plan For non-GSE loans, servicers choose whether to participate or not Mandatory for all Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac insured loans, even if servicer not participating. Similar HAMP programs for VA and FHA loans Participating servicers supposed to screen everybody, subject only to investor limits Uniform modification characteristics Payments reduced to 31%, following standard waterfall Modification results in a positive Net Present Value (NPV) for investors Trial modification followed by permanent modification

No regs No statute Guidance Non-GSE: Supplemental Directives, Model Forms & FAQs ( Fannie Mae: Announcements ( Freddie Mac: Bulletins ( FHA: Mortgagee letters ( VA: Circulars (

29 SERVICER INCENTIVES $1000 for each completed loan mod
$1000 a year for 3 years for sustained loan modification, if payment reduced by 6% (or ½ of the amount the borrower’s monthly payment is lowered by, if less) Incentives for deed in lieu or short sale $500 for pre-default loan modification

30 INVESTOR INCENTIVES $1500 pre-default loan modification with payment reduced by at least 6% Partial loan guarantees for modified loans (declining principal coverage) Interest or principal reduction subsidies for half the difference between a payment at 38% DTI and 31% DTI Home Price Decline Protection (HPDP) payments Increase as House price decline index (MSA or non-MSA region) increases UPB balance increases up to $259,000 MTM-LTV increases, up to 90% Permanent mods, payment reduced at least 6%, NPV run after 9/1/09 HPDP: Supplemental Directive 09-04

Servicers can do modifications that go deeper than HAMP and still receive incentive payments FAQs #3, 19 Servicers can offer non-HAMP modifications, although everyone should be screened for and offered a HAMP mod

32 LOAN ELIGIBILITY All Fannie Mae/Freddie Mac loans covered
Search engine online to see if either owns the loan List of participating servicers List with contact information available online Applies to operating subsidiaries/affiliates Servicer Participation Agreement (SPA) available online Websites:

Similar programs for Fannie & Freddie Fannie: Announcement 09-05R Freddie: Chapter C65 of Seller/Servicer Guide Servicers get same incentives

Mandates that banks receiving TARP money on a “going forward basis” offer loan modifications Servicers who sign contract must modify all eligible loans Approximately 85% of eligible mortgage debt covered by HAMP servicers Servicers of GSE loans must modify GSE loans Servicers, not investors, participate

HAMP doesn’t override PSAs. BUT, the program follows “the “usual and customary industry standards” If investor forbids modification, servicer must request waiver Supp. Dir : servicers required to use “reasonable efforts” to get approval. Supp. Dir : servicers required to provide list to Treasury of investors not participating in HAMP and to contact each in writing at least 1x to encourage participation. 15 U.S.C. §1639a creates safe harbor from investor litigation for servicers who modify under HAMP

Is the borrower eligible? Default or imminent risk of default Current payment greater than 31% of income Property eligibility Loan eligibility Does the borrower qualify? Hardship affidavit Verified income NPV test (will the investor profit more by a mod than without a mod?)

37 DEFAULT? Default: must have been caused by hardship
Or default is “imminent” due to hardship Is the rate about to reset? Lost income in the home? Employment income Divorce/ separation Death Fraud in origination Low cash reserves Imminent default guidance: Fannie Mae: Announcement 10-02 Freddie Mac: Bulletin Non-GSE loans: Supp. Dir gives servicers wide latitude; FAQ #19 refers servicers to GSE guidelines

Gross income for borrowers. Can include income for non-borrower household members. Net income gets multiplied by 125% Rental income gets multiplied by 75% Borrowers receiving unemployment benefits not eligible Must be able to document monthly income Borrower DOES NOT have to disclose child support or alimony Expenses PITIA on first mortgage only Mortgage insurance not included Note: Neither income nor expenses are an absolute bar, but a borrower’s income may be too low or too high for a HAMP mod Too low and the borrower will fail the NPV test Too high and the borrower may already be at or under 31% DTI Supp. Dir , Supp. Dir , Supp. Dir

39 ELIGIBILITY Property must be: Loan must be:
Primary residence. Investment properties not eligible. One to four units Loan must be: First lien originated on or before January 1, 2009 Home equity loans eligible if loan is first or only lien on property Unpaid principal balance cap 1 unit: $729,450 2 unit: $934,200 3 unit: $1,129,250 4 unit: $1,403,400 Not previously modified under HAMP Supp. Dir

40 APPLYING FOR HAMP Submission of “Initial Package” triggers servicer’s duty to review for HAMP Request for Modification and Affidavit (RMA) 4506T-EZ form RMA and 4506T-EZ Forms available at or Proof of income As of 6/1/10, will not accept oral/unverified income Checklist available at Supp. Dir

10 business days from receipt of Initial Package to acknowledge borrower’s request in writing. 30 calendar days from receipt to approve, deny, or request more information in writing If denied, 10 business days from determination to notify of denial in writing. Supp. Dir , Supp. Dir , Supp. Dir

42 WATERFALL ANALYSIS Target payment – PITIA 31% of gross monthly income
If servicer reduces payment to 38%, Treasury subsidizes rate reduction to 31% Waterfall Analysis Capitalize arrearage Reduce interest rate Amortization term extended to 40 years Principal forbearance Allowed to forgive principal, but not required. Servicers will only take steps necessary to get payment to target amount. Supp. Dir

Capitalized arrearage includes: Past due principal and interest Escrow deficiencies/advances, though doesn’t have to be. Foreclosure costs Servicing fees: property inspections, credit report fee CANNOT include: Late fees: unpaid fees will be waived Additional modification fees: no charge for HAMP. Supp. Dir

44 INTEREST RATE Reduced to as low as 2% for 5 years (to get to 31%)
Can go lower, but incentives only paid down to 2% Increase at 1% after 5 years to lower of Freddie Mac rate Interest rate cap in note Once rate increases to cap, fixed for life of loan.

Limited to 30% of unpaid principal balance or 100% LTV (Supp. Dir ) Treated as non-interest bearing balloon payment Reduction: Not required Additional incentives available ($1,000/year for 5 years of successful mod) Supp. Dir

What are the loan mod terms? Payment Income Escrow Forbearance required FDIC Loan Mod in a Box What is the unpaid principal balance? 30% What is the current value? Difference between unpaid principal balance and current value

47 HAMP NPV TEST Measures the benefit to the investor of a loan mod
Not servicer Not borrower Weighs value and probability of Current payments Foreclosure Loan mod Foreclosure after loan mod Positive NPV test= HAMP loan mod Negative NPV test—still possible to have a loan mod, but unlikely to qualify for HAMP.

48 HAMP NPV TEST HAMP NPV test not public Default model based on:
Should demand entire NPV in discovery FDIC has comparable model online at Default model based on: FICO score MTM LTV Current delinquency DTI Value of current loan reduced by probability of default Value of loan mod reduced by probability of redefault. Servicers can generate their own NPV and use their own numbers for required inputs

Current income stream on loan is high Small likelihood of default (high FICO, low LTV, current, low DTI) Foreclosure looks attractive High home value Chance of cure is high Mod looks risky Declining home prices High chance of redefault Mod doesn’t generate enough income Borrower’s income is so low that at 31%, the mod doesn’t generate enough income

50 IF APPROVED… Trial Period Plan
At least 3 months trial at proposed modified payment Arrears will accrue during trial. Payments are held in suspense and only credited when equal to full monthly payment under note. Will be reported to credit bureaus as either in default or making payments under a plan May be required to get housing counseling if back end ratio is more than 55% DTI but need not be completed before modification. Will be converted to permanent modification upon completion of trial modification If fails trial period: no further HAMP mod. “1 bite at the apple.” Supp. Dir , Supp. Dir

If more information needed: Servicer must send written request to borrower that identifies specific information needed Letter must allow 30 days to provide missing documents. If still not returned, servicer must send 2nd letter giving borrower 15 days to provide documents before denying application. If still not provided, servicer will send Denial Notice that cites denial due to insufficient information to determine eligibility Supp. Dir , Supp. Dir

52 IF DENIED… Servicers must notify borrowers when: Who gets notices:
Not offering a trial mod Not offering a permanent mod Borrower at risk of losing trial mod Borrower withdraws or refuses loan mod offer Who gets notices: Borrower who submitted request for HAMP Borrower who verbally gave information sufficient for NPV review Borrower offered trial mod Supp. Dir

53 IF DENIED… Must be sent to borrower within 10 days of determining HAMP modification denied. Must state why homeowner was denied Must describe alternative loss mitigation options If due to NPV, must offer opportunity to request NPV inputs ECOA compliance required by Supp. Dir and FRB guidance FCRA not specifically cited, but surely included in all other applicable regs

54 IF DENIED… If denied based on NPV: notice will allow opportunity to request certain inputs (e.g. income, UPB) in 30 days (sale stayed) Servicer must provide inputs w/in 10 days of request Not required to provide property valuation, assumptions, fees No foreclosure sale for additional 30 days if borrower requests inputs Must review new borrower data, recalculate if likely to change outcome

Process set out in Sup. Dir If NPV inputs inaccurate, servicer must re-run if “material” No foreclosure sale until inaccuracies “resolved” In-house servicer escalation teams Contact appropriate escalation team Non-GSE: (866) 939 – 4469 Fannie Mae: FANNIE Freddie Mac: Phone: FREDDIE

As of June 1, 2010 – are eligible for HAMP: Borrowers in an active chapter 7 or chapter 13 bankruptcy case must be considered for HAMP if the borrower, borrower’s counsel or bankruptcy trustee submits a request to the servicer. Borrowers may not be denied a permanent HAMP modification on the basis of a bankruptcy filing. Servicers cannot object to confirmation of a chapter 13 plan, move for relief from the automatic stay, or move to dismiss the chapter 13 case if on the basis that the borrower paid only the trial period plan payments rather than the scheduled mortgage payments Supp. Dir

Servicers may accept copies of the bankruptcy schedules and tax returns filed in the case in lieu of the RMA and Form 4506T-EZ, if they are within 90 days. Borrowers in a chapter 13 case who are determined eligible for HAMP may be converted to a permanent modification without completing a trial period plan if current on post- petition payments and if payments are >31% of gross monthly income. Supp. Dir

58 WAIVER Should be no waiver
Supplemental Directive 09-01, p. 2 Language in modification agreement, paragraph 4E appears to waive some defences Can get a HAMP mod even if in active litigation or bankruptcy

59 PROBLEMS Servicer communication Re-verification of income
No response No details about analysis or determination Re-verification of income Documents lost Homeowner no longer eligible Accumulation of arrears Foreclosure sales Wrongful denials

60 RELATED PROGRAMS: 2MP 2nd Lien Modification Program (2MP)
Voluntary participation: signing separate SPA agreements. List of participating servicers at Though announced, Treasury reports not “operational” until August. Supp. Dir

61 RELATED PROGRAMS: 2MP To be eligible, borrower must have final HAMP mod on 1st lien Then, 2nd lien can be modified or extinguished, in whole or in part. Modification follows first lien: Interest rate reduced to 1% for 5 years, then rate of first lien Amortization to match first lien Proportional principal forbearance

62 RELATED PROGRAMS: UP Unemployment Program, effective July 1, 2010
Three-month “forbearance” Payments scheduled at 31% of income Borrower must request forbearance before 3 months of payments are delinquent Servicer may require borrower to demonstrate receipt of unemployment for 3 months before evaluating for forbearance If re-employed at end of forbearance, could be considered for HAMP Otherwise, could be considered for a short-sale or deed-in-lieu Unemployment income will not be considered in determining HAMP eligibility Supp. Dir

63 RELATED PROGRAMS: UP Homeowners must request forbearance plan before 3 months delinquent Servicers can require homeowners to receive unemployment benefits for up to 3 months before reviewing for forbearance Borrowers must demonstrate receipt of unemployment benefits through effective date of forbearance agreement First day of the month following mailing of forbearance plan to homeowner by servicer

64 RELATED PROGRAMS: UP Borrowers should request forbearance immediately upon becoming unemployed Borrowers should hold servicers’ to response timelines, so that unemployment benefits do not run out before effective date of forbearance plan Servicer must send notice of forbearance plan 10 business days after its determination Will accrue late fees No referrals to foreclosure or judicial sale during evaluation for UP or during forbearance

65 RELATED PROGRAMS: UP If unemployed, evaluated for UP not HAMP
Evaluated for HAMP mod if: Not eligible for forbearance Re-employed 30 days prior to expiration of forbearance Forbearance period does not count towards 3 month trial plan Can convert from trial plan to forbearance if become unemployed Must complete new trial plan Subject to 3 month waiting period

Homeowners can get $3000 for completing a short-sale or DIL Must meet basic HAMP eligibility requirements No NPV test Must be evaluated for HAMP and fail or request HAFA If borrower requests HAFA, they must be informed of HAMP and given 14 days to consider pursuing HAMP Deficiency must be waived Borrowers may be required to make monthly payments of 31% of income Supp. Dir

Minimum net proceeds defined in advance Minimum 120 days to sell the property Borrower supposed to clear subordinate liens; servicer may authorize up to a total of $6K from sale proceeds paid to subordinate lienholders, no more than 6% of the subordinate lien’s outstanding principal balance Servicer may require borrower to list house first, before entering into a deed-in-lieu

Works in tandem with HUD partial claim, but some different rules HAMP considered last modification tool for FHA loans, rather used as first option like Fannie/Freddie/non-GSE. Incentive payments now available for FHA-HAMP mods Includes principal reduction payments to borrowers Mortgagee letters available at Mortgagee Letter sets forth basic outline Be aware of other modification options available for FHA mortgages See, e.g., Mortgagee Letter (requiring that modifications reduce the base rate to the current market rate) Supp. Dir

Basic program guidance in Circular , available at FAQs available at Largely adopts Treasury forms and models, except Two step NPV process, with VA guarantee and without If it passes without but fails with, VA “refund” of the loan should happen All VA loans eligible for consideration Only modifications on loans 61+ days delinquent eligible for servicer incentive payment Divorced spouse of veteran who retains home eligible

70 How Volunteering in Foreclosure Mediation Will Work
Receive CVLS w/ available mediation dates Volunteer accepts a mediation date Receive CVLS w/ cases attached CVLS sends letter to client w/ your contact information Client contacts attorney (or vice versa)

71 How Volunteering in Foreclosure Mediation Will Work
1st Discussion Between You and the Client Either in person or over the phone Scope of Representation Pre-Mediation & Mediation: purpose, process Confirm Financials Reality Testing Identify Goals: Retention/Non-Retention Best/Worst Case Scenario

72 How Volunteering in Foreclosure Mediation Will Work
Pre-Mediation Negotiation w/ Plaintiff’s Attorney Save correspondence ( s, correspondence, etc…) Be aggressive Agreements must be in writing and signed before cancelling mediation Use mediation summary terms

73 How Volunteering in Foreclosure Mediation Will Work
Must have all updated financials Clients must appear Be prepared and on time Use mediation summary terms Post-Mediation Report results to CVLS

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