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Missouri CDBG Administrative Training 2011 Paul Mohr Regional Environmental Officer HUD Region VII Office 400 State Avenue, Rm 200 Kansas City, MO 66101-2406.

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Presentation on theme: "Missouri CDBG Administrative Training 2011 Paul Mohr Regional Environmental Officer HUD Region VII Office 400 State Avenue, Rm 200 Kansas City, MO 66101-2406."— Presentation transcript:

1 Missouri CDBG Administrative Training 2011 Paul Mohr Regional Environmental Officer HUD Region VII Office 400 State Avenue, Rm 200 Kansas City, MO (voice) (fax) Kansas City Regional Office Missouri Dept of Economic Development Jefferson City, MO July 8, 2011

2 Noise Control

3 Training Topics:  Background  HUD Noise Standards  Conducting Noise Analysis  Site Design, Barriers, Acoustical Construction  Mitigation Review  ERR Documentation

4 Background  Noise affects people’s ability to :  Talk to one another  Hear threats around them  Enjoy recreational pursuits  Learn and concentrate  Noise causes physical harm - hearing loss, stress, and threats to mental and social well being  Noise reduces property value and resale potential Noise is detrimental for many reasons…

5 Common Audible Sounds Rustle of leaves in the wind 10dB Average whisper20dB Soft radio music in a house40dB Range of speech48-72dB Noisy urban street90dB Loud auto horn at 10 ft. 100dB Background

6 Comply with the Housing Act of 1949 by creating and enforcing a standard for “a decent home in a suitable living environment” Comply with the HUD Act of 1965 mandate “to determine feasible methods of reducing the economic loss and hardships suffered by homeowners…following the construction of airports…” Comply with Compatible Land Uses at Federal Airfields to not promote incompatible land uses within the influence of military and other federal air installations Noise affects the quality of housing and its economic value…

7 Background  Implemented for HUD projects through regulation 24 CFR Part 51, Subpart B Congress passed the Noise Control Act of 1972, amended by Quiet Communities Act of 1978  HUD regulation established standards for maximum interior and exterior noise [ 24 CFR (a)(9)]

8  New Construction – Prohibit (generally) HUD support for new construction of noise sensitive uses on sites having unacceptable noise exposure [24 CFR (a)(3)]  Rehabilitation – Encourage, or strongly encourage, noise attenuation features or convert to a land use compatible with high noise levels [24 CFR (a)(5)]  Land Use – Encourage land use patterns for housing and other noise sensitive urban needs that provide a suitable separation between them and major noise sources [24 CFR (a)(3)] HUD policy for housing and noise sensitive uses… HUD’s Noise Standards

9  New Construction - Noise must be considered for new construction or land development (including acquisition, insurance, conversion from non-residential uses) for residential or noise sensitive uses  Existing Construction  Rehabilitation projects are encouraged to provide noise attenuation  If noise is in Unacceptable range, conversion to more suitable land use is strongly encouraged  Project cannot be rejected solely for noise - However, noise is marketability factor which may influence underwriting and other assistance New construction versus existing construction… HUD’s Noise Standards

10  Noise can’t be taken into consideration without knowing if it’s an issue – and if it is an issue, attenuate noise commensurate with the extent of effort, resources, and level of exterior noise  For “major or substantial rehab,” HUD/Responsible Entity “actively shall seek” noise attenuation [§51.101(a)(5)]  No explicit definition (in noise regulation or HUD policy) distinguishes “major” vs “minor” rehab of single-family housing  Reasonable to establish a threshold at “50% of the pre-rehab value” whereby noise will be evaluated if project falls within threshold distance of major noise source  Thus:  For major rehab, attenuate noise given the extent of rehab and level of exterior noise  For minor rehab, perform energy audit and include weatherization in scope of work to extent practicable Major versus Minor rehabilitation of 1-4 unit housing HUD’s Noise Standards

11  Acceptable Range: <65 dB  Normally Unacceptable Range: 65 dB <75 dB  Unacceptable Range: >75 dB Threshold of Pain Threshold of Hearing Damage Threshold of Feeling Noisy Urban Street Average Office Leaves Rustling Threshold of Audibility Near Jet Engine HUD Outdoor Noise Standard… 24 CFR (Noise Guidebook pg 50) HUD’s Noise Standards

12 Best Choices HUD’s Noise Standards  Typical construction provides 20 dB of noise attenuation – So, if outdoor noise level is 65 dB (or less), indoor noise will be 45 dB (acceptable) [24 CFR (c)(2)]  Four Noise Management Options –REDUCE: Reduce the Noise Emitted from a Sound Generator (HUD has No Authority to regulate equipment manufacturers or operators) –SEPARATE: Move Building Further from the Sound Generator –MITIGATE PROPERTY: Construct Noise Barriers Near Property Lines –MITIGATE BUILDING: Use Sound-Attenuating Building Construction and Materials in the Building Construction. (Least Desirable: Subjects Outdoor Areas to Excessive Noise) Management options for addressing noise…

13 HUD uses Day-Night Level (DNL) noise descriptor  accumulates noise data from all sources  airports  roadways  railroads  military and industrial facilities  averaged over a 24 hour period  weighted 10 decibels for nighttime  estimates noise level for 10-years in future How is noise evaluated? HUD’s Noise Standards

14 1.Determine whether project is noise sensitive use 2.Determine if project is within proximity to major noise source(s) 3.Gather data needed for analysis 4.Calculate noise level 5.Based on noise level, make finding:  approve project as proposed  require noise attenuation or mitigation  reject project / seek alternative site(s) Overview of noise evaluation process… Conducting Noise Analysis

15  Housing  Hospitals  Quiet outdoor space that is ancillary to the principal use (e.g. for recreation/sitting)  Day Care Facility  Nursing Homes  Libraries  Community Center 1. Determine whether project is noise sensitive use Conducting Noise Analysis Any activity that is easily disturbed by high noise levels…

16 Industrial Commercial Office Retail Performance Venues Recreation Residential Storage/ Garage Bath/ UtilityKitchenLiving/Family Room Bedroom / Den Land Uses Interior Spaces Most Sensitive Least Sensitive Conducting Noise Analysis Noise Sensitivity Continuum 1. Determine whether project is noise sensitive use

17 Project located within:  1,000 feet of major/busy road  3,000 feet of railway  15 miles of civil airport or military airfield  Near industrial facility 2. Determine if project within proximity to a major noise source or sources Conducting Noise Analysis

18 Information about the project and area:  Maps of the site and surroundings  Site plan and Vicinity map  Aerial photograph – e.g. Google Earth  Planimetric map – shows roads, building footprints, railroads  Topographic map – shows elevation contours  Local land use plans (future, proposed) and zoning  Is outdoor use a component of the project? (balconies, patios, decks)  Visit site, if possible 3. Gather data needed for analysis Conducting Noise Analysis

19 Collect raw data and information about noise sources:  Airports – Contact airport manager or Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)  Obtain noise contour plan or data on # flights per day, both daytime and at night  Most airports have noise plan that includes Noise Contours - Nearly all installations that make noise have a plan for managing it  At Military Installations, ask for their “Air Installation Compatible Use Zone” Plan – It is intended to be shared with local planners and developers 3. Gather data needed for analysis Conducting Noise Analysis

20 Collect raw data and information about noise sources:  Airports –  Civil airports subject to Part 51-B are those designated in the FAA’s “National Plan of Integrated Airport System” (NPIAS) – generally, 9,000 enplanements or higher:  All military air installations are subject to Part 51-B. Sample source for military installations: 3. Gather data needed for analysis Conducting Noise Analysis

21

22 Collect raw data and information about noise sources:  Roadways - Contact State DOT, city/county transportation agency or regional planning agency  Average Daily Traffic (ADT)  Percentage Breakdown of automobiles and medium and heavy trucks  Traffic projections needed for minimum 10 years into future  Percentage Nighttime Use 3. Gather data needed for analysis Conducting Noise Analysis

23 3. Gather data needed for analysis Conducting Noise Analysis TYPICAL VEHICLE USE BY ROAD CLASSIFICATION Roadway Class Vehicle Use  Local1,500/day  Collector 2,000-3,000/day (up to8,000/day)  Arterial 20,000-25,000/day or 2,400/hr. (at peak hours)  Freeway +70,000/day Source: Local Planning Administration Book, International City Manager’s Association., 1959

24 Collect raw data and information about noise sources:  Railroads - Contact railroad operator or State DOT  Who is Operator? Check Federal Railroad Administration’s crossing inventory database or site visit to at-grade crossing  How many Trains per day?  Number of Cars per train?  Number of Engines per train? Diesel or electric?  Rails welded or bolted?  Speed of train?  Percent of night operations? 3. Gather data needed for analysis Conducting Noise Analysis

25 Collect raw data and information about noise sources:  Railroads – Obtaining data: try Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) at-grade crossing inventory database: safetydata.fra.dot.gov/OfficeofSafety/publicsite/crossing/xingqryloc.aspx  Take crossing # from bungalow or signal mast, e.g., X or J 3. Gather data needed for analysis Conducting Noise Analysis

26 Collect raw data and information about noise sources:  Railroads - Whistle Posts near site?  Is site within perpendicular lines drawn from whistle posts? If yes, “horns” are an impact 3. Gather data needed for analysis Conducting Noise Analysis Highway “No”“Yes” ¼ mile

27 3. Gather data needed for analysis Conducting Noise Analysis Assumptions are allowable where better data is not obtainable  Roadways  roadway speed = actual, observed speed for cars and trucks  night time traffic = 15% of ADT  Trains  50 cars per diesel train  8 cars per electric train  30 mph train speed  whistles used at grade crossings

28 Collect raw data and information about noise sources:  Industrial Facilities  Identify factories, warehouses, heavy industrial uses within proximity of site  Hours of operation  Such facilities may generate loud, impulsive sounds 3. Gather data needed for analysis Conducting Noise Analysis

29 4. Calculate noise level Conducting Noise Analysis  Overview:  Noise exposure is calculated for major noise sources typically encountered - aircraft, vehicles and trains  Sound levels are combined for a total projected noise environment – (Sound levels are not added together, rather mathematical factors combine levels based on the difference between two levels being compared)  Impact noises are handled separately – such as, sonic booms, stamping mills, metal fabrication, artillery and explosives training or testing

30 4. Calculate noise level using Tools Conducting Noise Analysis  Use Charts ( paper nomographs) from HUD guidebook “Noise Assessment Guidebook” (NAG) Order free copy , # HUD-953-CPD or  Use Excel Spreadsheet obtained from HUD or  Use HUD on-line calculating tool

31 4. Calculate noise level…the process Conducting Noise Analysis  Select Noise Assessment Location – “NAL”  Measure distance from NAL to noise source  Input noise source data (variables) into nomographs, spreadsheet or on-line calculator  Apply adjustment factors – done automatically if using spreadsheet or on-line calculator  Calculate combined DNL – done automatically if using spreadsheet or on-line calculator  Re-calculate DNL accounting for barriers & mitigation, as appropriate

32 4. Calculate noise level Conducting Noise Analysis NAL: Noise Assessment Location  NAL is located 6.5 feet (2 meters) in front of the façade of the proposed building at the point that is closest to the noise source  If more than one building, use building nearest to noise source  May have more than one NAL for a large site or site with more than one major noise source

33 4. Calculate noise level Conducting Noise Analysis  Measure the distance from NAL to centerline of noise source – use scaled site plan or map Roadways Measure to near edge of nearest lane Far edge of farthest lane Add and divide by 2 If symmetrical roadways, simply measure to centerline Railroads Measure to center of single track Multiple tracks – measure to middle of set Non-adjacent tracks – calculate each track as separate source

34 Worksheet A Site Evaluation Fill out top section with basic project data to start assessment Individual findings added after other worksheets are completed – spreadsheet automatically includes & calculates Final Determination

35 Worksheet B Aircraft Noise (Noise Guidebook pg 52) List all airports of concern If contours are available, locate the site on the map and estimate the noise exposure. If not, fill in the data gathered here and estimate the contours Add note about sonic booms and explosions Impulse Noise from Sonic Booms? (If Yes, Add 8 dB)

36 4. Calculate noise level Conducting Noise Analysis Loud Impulsive Sounds  Impulse Noises have enormous effect  Add 8 decibels to the total if present [24 CFR (b)]  Criteria for including: [24 CFR (a)(3)]  Loud (explosions, sonic booms, artillery firing, etc)  Unpredictable  Definition: [24 CFR 51 Appendix I(3)(i)]  Definable as a Discreet Event  Approximately 1 Second Duration or Less  Slow-Averaging meter reading – at least 6 decibels greater than ambient level  Fast-Averaging meter reading – at least 4 decibels greater than slow-averaging meter reading

37 Worksheet C Roadway Noise (Noise Guidebook pg 54) On all sheets, use the white space to document data sources & other pertinent information Stop signs within 600 ft (Traffic lights don’t count) ADT must be provided by DOT Road grade: “rise over run” If night use unknown, use 15%

38 Worksheet D1 Railway Noise (Noise Guidebook pg 62) Applies to all railroads within 3,000 ft of the property line Include the locomotive in number of cars in an electrified train Horns are required at nearly all crossings – Should be rephrased: “Is site opposite a section of track between whistlestops?”

39 Workchart 3 Railway Noise In this example, Each railroad is plotted on the chart – and the noise level found RR#1 DNL = 60 dB RR#2 DNL = 44 dB RR#3 DNL = 61 dB 540 RR# dB RR#2 1.5 RR# dB 60 dB

40 Conducting Noise Analysis  May use when:  Insufficient/inadequate data  Noise source is not impulsive, but is “point” source – e.g., large air vents from underground transit line; noisy adjacent industrial use  May not use to refute NAG or airport contours.  See pp of Noise Guidebook as to when and when not to use measurements  Should be professionally prepared (acoustical engineer) A Word on Noise Meters … 4. Calculate noise level

41 Conducting Noise Analysis HUD on-line DNL calculator

42 5. Based on calculated noise level, make Finding… Conducting Noise Analysis  Acceptable Range: <65 dB  Normally Unacceptable Range: 65 dB <75 dB  Unacceptable Range: >75 dB  Finding :  If Normally Unacceptable:  Select another site (alternative location)  Consider exterior mitigation  Consider interior mitigation  If Unacceptable:  Select another site (alternative location)  Conduct EIS (Environmental Impact Statement)

43 US FT Center line Sleepy Lane US-69 HWY data (Source: K-DOT Map) 11,800 ADT 1250 Heavy Trucks 5% Medium Trucks 50 MPH 15% Nighttime Traffic 0% Slope distance to stop +600’ Breakout Auto & Medium Truck ADT 10,550 Auto ADT (11,800 minus 1250) 528 Medium Truck (10,550 times 5%)) Questions: What is the NOISE Level (DNL)? Is the site acceptable? Can you mitigate? NAL Example: CDBG Single-Family Major Rehab

44 Attenuating Noise Site Design – Barriers – Acoustical Construction

45 Noise Mitigation & Attenuation Site Design, Barriers, Acoustical Construction  Options for Exterior Mitigation  Revise the site design  Construct a barrier  Remove balconies & windows from noise-exposed facades  Options for Interior Mitigation  Move noise-sensitive uses to interior portions of the building  Use wall sections with appropriate Sound Transmission Classifications

46 Responsibility of NEPA Preparer  What Do You Do?  Make developer aware of the attenuation requirements  Make decision-makers aware of the mitigation options available  Review attenuation proposals to assure they are adequate  What Don’t You Do?  It Is Not your responsibility to design barriers or figure acoustical construction specifications However… Site Design, Barriers, Acoustical Construction

47 Responsibility of NEPA Preparer  Have a basic understanding of what can be done  Know what will work - and what will not  Provide site planning options that will achieve the desired result without huge additional cost  Remember that an alternative site may be the best solution You Should… Site Design, Barriers, Acoustical Construction

48 Three Options for Attenuating Noise  Site Design – Moving noise-sensitive uses away from the noise source – Best option  Barriers or Berms – Constructing physical barricades to stop noise (Protects outside areas)  Structural Design & Acoustical Construction – Changes to the building itself, including special acoustical construction (Least preferred, because does nothing to mitigate exterior noise) Site Design, Barriers, Acoustical Construction

49 Option 1: Site Planning & Design  Distance  Doubling distance from sound source can reduce intensity by 6 dB  Important to consider for upper levels of multi-story buildings – which cannot be easily protected by noise barrier  Noise-compatible land uses as buffers  Parking, maintenance facilities, utility structures and landscaped open space  Buildings as Shields  Structures with noise-tolerant uses (Office, Retail) can block the sound energy from more sensitive uses behind them  Building Orientation  Site building to use topography (hills and depressions) as barriers Site Design, Barriers, Acoustical Construction

50 Buildings As Shields Site Design, Barriers, Acoustical Construction

51 Option 2: Barriers or Berms  How barriers work – By blocking the sound energy that travels on a line-of-sight between the source and receiver  Basics of barrier design: φ Straight Sound Path Diffracted Sound Path Noise Source Noise Barrier Noise Receiver Site Design, Barriers, Acoustical Construction

52 Option 2: Barriers or Berms Key factors to designing effective barriers –  Careful placement of the barrier between the noise source and receiver  Barrier must address vertical and horizontal exposure to noise  Barrier materials must be solid  Barrier must be continuous and uninterrupted  Natural (topographic) or manmade (buildings) noise barriers may already exist Site Design, Barriers…

53 How Do You Make Barriers More Effective? Site Design, Barriers, Acoustical Construction

54 How Do You Make Barriers More Effective? Move the barrier closer to the noise source: Larger diffraction angle (φ) equals better attenuation Straight Sound Path Diffracted Sound Path φ Site Design, Barriers, Acoustical Construction

55 How Do You Make Barriers More Effective? Higher barrier = larger angle (better attenuation) A barrier that is close to the receiver must be higher than if it was close to the source Increase the barrier height: Straight Sound Path Diffracted Sound Path φ Site Design, Barriers, Acoustical Construction

56 How Do You Make Barriers More Effective?  Openings totaling more than 10% of the barrier area will remove all attenuation value  Diffracted sound (over the wall) is usually more significant than reflected sound (bounced off an opposite wall) - but not always Diffracted Sound Reflected Sound Site Design, Barriers, Acoustical Construction

57 How Do You Make Barriers More Effective? Use of natural noise barriers: Site Design, Barriers, Acoustical Construction

58 How Do You Make Barriers More Effective? Use of natural noise barriers: Site Design, Barriers, Acoustical Construction

59 Option 3: Structural Design & Attenuation  Modify design of building spaces & features  Locate non-sensitive interior spaces (garage, kitchen) so they are between the noise source and sensitive interior rooms (bedroom, den)  Orient sensitive building features (doors, windows, balconies, play and recreational areas) away from the noise source  Windows can be removed or reinforced along most impacted wall – Note that windows on a façade parallel to source get constant exposure, but those on a perpendicular face get noise that abruptly stops and starts. This can be more annoying to residents (site conditions determine which is worse) Site Design, Barriers, Acoustical Construction

60 Option 3: Structural Design & Attenuation  Special acoustical construction  Use of noise reducing materials and construction techniques to provide attenuation 5-10 dB above normal construction practices  Standard building practices provide 20 dB attenuation (Thus, 45 dB interior standard + 20 dB normal construction = 65 dB exterior noise)  Architects use Sound Transmission Class (STC) of materials to calculate amount of attenuation that various materials provide Site Design, Barriers, Acoustical Construction

61 Sound Transmission Basics  Building materials transmit sound at different rates – the Sound Transmission Class (STC)  Walls are composed of various components, materials and spaces  Single- or multi-pane windows  Concrete masonry units or wood frame  Cavities (double brick with an airspace) versus solid  Wall systems can be specially constructed to insulate against noise  Allowed by 24 CFR (a)(1)  Wall section calculator: Site Design, Barriers, Acoustical Construction

62 Sound Transmission Class (STC)  STC is a number of decibels a sound is reduced as it passes through a specific combination of materials and construction  Developed through laboratory testing  Ratings for various wall configurations are in Noise Guidebook (page 38, table 3) and in Supplement guide  Windows and doors are most vulnerable components of the wall system  Ratings in the 20s vs. 40s - 50s for the rest of the wall  A job for an acoustical engineer in most cases Site Design, Barriers, Acoustical Construction

63 Noise Mitigation Review

64 Projects in Normally Unacceptable Range… Noise Mitigation Review  Normally Unacceptable = 65 < 75 DNL  Recap - Elements to review :  Site Planning & Design  Barriers or Berms  Building Modification & Special Acoustical Construction  Special Acoustical Construction  Project between 65 < 70 DNL requires 5dB attenuation  Projects between 70 < 75 DNL requires 10dB attenuation

65 Noise Mitigation Review  Increase separation distance between the source and the receiver to the fullest extent practicable  If noise-compatible buildings are being used as barriers, are they adequate?  Are they long enough?  Are they high enough?  If they contain noise-sensitive uses, have they been appropriately soundproofed? Normally Unacceptable Range… More…on Site Planning & Design

66 Noise Mitigation Review  Is It High Enough?  Is It Long Enough?  Is It Made of the Right Materials?  Is It Properly Constructed?  Is It High Enough?  Does it break the line-of-sight between the source and the receiver? Beware of surfaces that might reflect the sound  Barriers generally not effective (high enough) for units above second floor – But lower floors and outdoor recreation areas still benefit Normally Unacceptable Range… More…on Barriers & Berms

67 Noise Mitigation Review  Is It Long Enough?  Is the site exposed at the ends of the barrier?  Don’t forget topography Normally Unacceptable Range… More…on Barriers & Berms Mount HUD NOISE BARRIER

68 Noise Mitigation Review  Is It Made of the Right Materials?  Lightweight materials transmit sound (remember STC) – low transmission loss value means ineffective barrier  Transmission loss value for the barrier material must be at least 10dB higher than the barrier’s design (per size & location) or there is little or no attenuation  Transmission loss values for common barrier materials are listed in Noise Guidebook (Table 1, page 27) - They are combined with the designed attenuation (based on size and location) in Table 2, page 28 for actual barrier attenuation Normally Unacceptable Range… More…on Barriers & Berms

69 Noise Mitigation Review  Is it Properly Constructed?  Barriers with openings totaling 50% or more of the total area provide no attenuation  Barriers with openings totaling 10% of the total area provides only 4dB attenuation (maximum)  Specifications should call for openings no more than 1% of total area and all joints tightly sealed Normally Unacceptable Range… More…on Barriers & Berms

70  Barrier calculation is much easier to figure if you have scaled site plan or sketch showing relationships of source, receiver, and barrier  Also ask for “section view” (or “profile”) through the receiver – this provides elevations of source, receiver, and barrier  Use a topographic map (contour map) to fill in data gaps  HUD on-line barrier calculator: Barrier Calculations Noise Mitigation Review

71 Key points  Barriers must break the line-of-sight between the noise source and the receiver  Noise traveling around or through a barrier reduces its effectiveness  Detailed information, including maps, are essential (sketches helpful)  Understanding the design issues will save time and money Barrier Summary Noise Mitigation Review

72  STC ratings guide choice of wall materials and construction  Calculate STC rating for building using Figure 19 from Noise Guidebook (page 39) – architect or engineer  Caution: STC ratings typically overstate wall’s ability to reduce transportation noise by 2-3 decibels  Denser, thicker & stiffer are ways to improve sound insulation in walls – and all can dramatically influence construction costs Normally Unacceptable Range… More…on Acoustical Construction

73 Noise Mitigation Review Normally Unacceptable Range… More…on Acoustical Construction  Many cost effective strategies for improving sound insulation  Cavities improve wall performance without large cost increase – a 6” airspace provides 5dB additional attenuation  Increase spacing between studs – an increase from 16” to 24” yields 2-5dB additional attenuation  Stagger the Studs - attaching each stud to only one wall panel provides approximately 4dB additional attenuation  Use resilient materials and fasteners - fiberboard sheathing and resilient clips can provide 2-5dB additional attenuation

74 ERR Documentation  Document whether proposed action is:  noise sensitive land use, and  within 1,000 feet of a major roadway, 3,000 feet of railroad, or 15 miles of an airport  If within those distances, document site is: Acceptable (at or below 65 dB) per attached Noise Analysis OR  If Normally Unacceptable, document specific mitigation (site design, noise barrier, acoustical construction, etc) sufficient to make it Acceptable OR  If Unacceptable, document that alternative site has been selected or project is preparing Environmental Impact Statement  Noise attenuation conditions must (if required) be included in Environmental Review as a Project Condition Required documentation (24 CFR 58.38)

75 I FT Center line Sleepy Lane I-95 data 100,000 ADT 10% Heavy Trucks 5% Medium Trucks 60 MPH 15% Nighttime Traffic 0% Slope Cherry Highway data 20,000 ADT 95% Autos 5% Medium Trucks 45 MPH 0% slope 15% nighttime traffic distance to stop 150ft Questions: What is the NOISE Level (DNL)? Is the site acceptable? Can you mitigate? 100 FT NAL Cherry Hwy Example: HOME proposal for Multi-Family construction On-line Calculator

76 Questions or Quiet Reflection


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