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Public Interest Law & Policy Class 5 Ronald W. Staudt September 8, 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "Public Interest Law & Policy Class 5 Ronald W. Staudt September 8, 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 Public Interest Law & Policy Class 5 Ronald W. Staudt September 8, 2009

2 Public Interest Law & Policy Waiting for Gautreaux, 125- 155 Hills v. Gautreaux, 425 U.S. 284 (1976) 425 U.S. 284

3 Waiting for Gautreaux Metropolitan relief & HUD HUD ruling in 7 th Cir- Austin orders plan Experts Rabinowitz and Hauser Hearing – Austin strikes evidence about FHA and suburban segregation Milliken DC and C of A approach rejected Motion for metropolitan relief denied as letting Chicago off the hook…. “moments of greatest disappointment..”

4 Waiting for Gautreaux “Furthermore, plaintiffs should not have to be reminded that no public housing has been built in this City since my order of July 1, 1969 because the municipal authorities refused to approve sufficient sites for such housing and recently because of a lack of funds. But, now that one of those obstacles has been eliminated by the Seventh Circuit's recent affirmance of my order to build housing in Chicago without City Council approval, plaintiffs have curiously raised an issue that would let the principal offender, CHA, avoid the politically distasteful task before it by passing off its problems onto the suburbs.” Judge Richard Austin, Gautreaux v. Romney, 363 F. Supp. 690 (N.D. Ill. September 11, 1973).

5 Milliken v. Bradley Connection of Detroit school case to Gautreaux Timing issues Multi-district relief not appropriate Judge will become a de facto legislative authority and then a school superintendant Unless discrimination by one district causes segregation in other districts or district lines drawn on basis of race or white students in Detroit were sent to the suburbs, there is no constitutional duty to send black students to the suburbs. Stewart: …the Court does not deal with questions of substantive constitutional law. The basic issue now before the Court concerns, rather, the appropriate exercise of federal equity jurisdiction.” Impact?

6 Waiting for Gautreaux Nixon, busing, Watergate, Milliken 7 th Cir. Victory- 2-1 Bork visit Solicitor General files for cert Section 8 launched No local veto, only comment Cert granted Preparing for the argument

7 Waiting for Gautreaux Six levels Prematurity Milliken is a school case Evidence of suburban discrimination HUD’s designated market areas Section 8 requires no local coercion We lose… Oral argument

8 Hills v. Gautreaux Procedural history— Austin denies metropolitan relief & orders HUD to use best efforts in the city 7 th Cir reverses with remand to adopt a metropolitan plan to end segregation and increase supply of housing Distinguishes Milliken Cert sought by HUD on permissibility of interdistrict relief in the absence of a finding of an interdistrict violation

9 Hills v. Gautreaux 7 th Cir erred in finding Milliken inapplicable- not limited to schools 7 th Cir wrong to surmise interdistrict violation or effect HUD’s arguments Incommensurate relief Consolidated districts result by remedy

10 Hills v. Gautreaux HUD violated the Constitution HUD and CHA can operate out of Chicago Housing market areas- HUD’s expertise “ To foreclose such relief solely because HUD's constitutional violation took place within the city limits of Chicago would transform Milliken's principled limitation on the exercise of federal judicial authority into an arbitrary and mechanical shield for those found to have engaged in unconstitutional conduct.”

11 Hills v. Gautreaux Part 2- HUD says no plan is possible without ignoring the safeguards of local autonomy, but Local authorities must apply- HUD order would not force applications Sect. 8 – consultation, planning, small sites

12 Hills v. Gautreaux “In sum, there is no basis for the petitioner's claim that court-ordered metropolitan area relief in this case would be impermissible as a matter of law under the Milliken decision. In contrast to the desegregation order in that case, a metropolitan area relief order directed to HUD would not consolidate or in any way restructure local governmental units. The remedial decree would neither force suburban governments to submit public housing proposals to HUD nor displace the rights and powers accorded local government entities under federal or state housing statutes or existing land-use laws. The order would have the same effect on the suburban governments as a discretionary decision by HUD to use its statutory powers to provide the respondents with alternatives to the racially segregated Chicago public housing system created by CHA and HUD.”

13 Waiting for Gautreaux Win, lose or draw? Damage control Holy grail gone Press misread Wounded but not devoured Time lost… What if??? Sue suburbs early Humphrey, Fortas,

14 Waiting for Gautreaux The argument The aftermath Questions???

15 Waiting for Gautreaux “The dream of the civil rights revolution seemed distant indeed, the bright hopes for litigation as a social change lever naïve.” What would I say to the law students today…

16 Next class- Alexander Polikoff questions and topics…

17 CLASS 6 — Thursday, September 10 Waiting for Gautreaux, 159 – 169- white backlash to Supreme Court victory 209 – 217 client autonomy discussion/ class actions 361 - 367 national character change in 1968 382 – 391 national Gautreaux plan The Third Side, the new BPI Report on the CHA Transformation project- read the executive summary and browse the rest of the report The Third SideCHA Transformation Study the BPI website, especially the BPI in-depth page and the Polikoff-Gautreaux Fellowship announcement.BPI in-depth page Polikoff-Gautreaux Fellowship announcement Skim Waiting for Gautreaux, 169 to end.

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