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The Future of Engineering and Implications for Education Charles M. Vest President, National Academy of Engineering President Emeritus, MIT NSF Engineering.

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Presentation on theme: "The Future of Engineering and Implications for Education Charles M. Vest President, National Academy of Engineering President Emeritus, MIT NSF Engineering."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Future of Engineering and Implications for Education Charles M. Vest President, National Academy of Engineering President Emeritus, MIT NSF Engineering Education Awardees Conference Reston, VA February 2, 2010

2 Challenge, Opportunity, and Engineering Education 1.21st century Engineering and Science 2.Globalization 3.Grand Challenges 4.Innovation 5.Engineering Education

3 21st Century Engineering and Science New Frontiers Interdisciplinary Interrelated Use-Inspired

4 Frontiers of Technology

5 Frontiers of Technology Macro Systems Energy Environment Health Care Manufacturing Communications Logistics Nano Bio Info Tiny Systems

6 Macro Systems Energy Environment Health Care Manufacturing Communications Logistics Nano Bio Info Social Science Natural Science Tiny Systems Frontiers of Technology

7 MACRO SYSTEMS Energy Environment Health Care Manufacturing Communications Logistics … TINY SYSTEMS Bio Info Nano Natural Science Social Science Engineering Systems

8 The Payoff will come from Bridging the Frontiers MACRO SYSTEMS Energy Environment Health Care Manufacturing Communications Logistics … TINY SYSTEMS Bio Info Nano Bio-based materials Biomemetics Personalized, Predictive Medicine Synthetic Biology Biofuels Etc.

9 Interdisciplinary

10 Genomic Research

11 Biology Genomic Research

12 Clinical Insight Robotics And Automation Biology Microfabrication Combinatorial Mathematics Genomic Research

13 Interdependent

14 SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY

15 Brain Research Cell Biology Complex Systems Computation Micro Sensors Imaging

16 Brain Research Cell Biology Complex Systems Computation Micro Sensors Imaging

17 Increasingly Use-Inspired

18 NoYes No Pure Basic Research (Bohr) Pure Applied Research (Edison) Research is inspired by: Consideration of use? Quest for Fundamental Understanding? Adapted from Pasteur’s Quadrant: Basic Science and Technological Innovation, Donald E. Stokes 1997 R&D is increasingly performed in “Pasteur’s Quadrant”

19 NoYes No Pure Basic Research (Bohr) Pure Applied Research (Edison) Research is inspired by: Consideration of use? Quest for Fundamental Understanding? Adapted from Pasteur’s Quadrant: Basic Science and Technological Innovation, Donald E. Stokes 1997 R&D is increasingly performed in “Pasteur’s Quadrant” Use-inspired Basic Research (Pasteur)

20 NoYes No Pure Basic Research (Bohr) Pure Applied Research (Edison) Research is inspired by: Consideration of use? Quest for Fundamental Understanding? Adapted from Pasteur’s Quadrant: Basic Science and Technological Innovation, Donald E. Stokes 1997 R&D is increasingly performed in “Pasteur’s Quadrant” Former University Presidents (Vest) Use-inspired Basic Research (Pasteur)

21 Globalization R&D Talent Higher Education Movement and Integration

22 Globalization of R&D and Talent

23 Global R&D Investments Data for 2002 Source: Science and Engineering Indicators, NSF 2008 R&D Expenditures and Share of World Total 1/3

24 New Players Where the Expertise is Source: Competitiveness Index 2007, Council on Competitiveness, Washington, DC

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26

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28 Source: Science and Engineering Indicators 2006, National Science Foundation, Washington, DC First Engineering Degrees (China Rises.) China US Japan thousands

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30 World’s Largest Solar Powered Office Building, Dezhau, China

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32 Source: NSF Science and Engineering Indicators 2008 How do we compare with the Rest of the World?

33 Source: NSF Science and Engineering Indicators 2008 A Problem How do we compare with the Rest of the World?

34 source: V. Wadhwa, Issues in Science and Technology, 2009 Immigrants have founded many Of our S&E Based Companies

35 Globalization of Higher Education

36 Research University Globalization Phase I Germany Humboldt University 1800s USA Johns Hopkins 1800s MIT, Caltech, RPI, … 1800s / 1900s Berkeley, Stanford, Michigan, UC, … 1800s /1900s IITs India 1960’s Acceleration Asia 2000’s Bologna Europe s!

37 Research University Globalization Phase II Physical Presence in Other Countries –Campuses –Laboratories Strategic Alliances Between Universities Virtual Presence in Other Countries –Distance Education Synchronous Asynchronous –Open Content: The Emerging Meta-University Teaching Materials Scholarly Archives Telepresent Laboratories

38 The Meta University A Personal View What we are observing is the early emergence of a Meta University -- a transcendent, accessible, empowering, dynamic, communally-constructed framework of open materials and platforms on which much of higher education worldwide can be constructed or enhanced.

39 Movement and Integration

40 Brain Drain Then

41 Brain Drain Brain Circulation Then Now

42 Brain Drain Brain Integration Brain Circulation Then Now Next

43 source: Prof. David Baker, University of Washington

44 MIT Center for Collective Intelligence Core research question: How can people and computer be connected so that collectively they act more intelligently than any person, group, or computer has ever done before?

45 Grand Challenges

46

47 CHALLENGE INSPIRE EDUCATE INNOVATE

48 Grand Challenges Committee Bill Perry, chair Sir Alec Broers Farouk El-Baz Wes Harris Bernadine Healy Daniel Hillis Calestous Juma Dean Kamen Ray Kurzweil Bob Langer Jaime Lerner Bindu Lohani Jane Lubchenco Mario Molina Larry Page Rob Socolow Craig Venter Jackie Ying

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50 Make Solar Energy Economical Manage the Nitrogen Cycle Advance Healthcare Informatics Prevent Nuclear Terror Advance Personalized Learning Provide Energy From Fusion Provide Access to Clean Water Engineer Better Medicines Secure Cyberspace Engineer the Tools of Scientific Discovery Develop Carbon Sequestration Methods Restore and Improve Urban Infrastructure Reverse Engineer the Brain Enhance Virtual Reality Engineering Grand Challenges

51 Energy Environment Global Warming Sustainability Improve Medicine and Healthcare Delivery Reducing Vulnerability to Human and Natural Threats Expand and Enhance Human Capability And Joy Engineering Grand Challenges

52 Innovation New Systems Drivers

53 New Systems for Innovation?

54 21st century Innovation

55 Life Sciences and Information Technology A new Enabling Technology? Macro Systems especially Energy Future of Venture Capital? Disruptive Technologies For Grand Challenges Globalization of R&D Education Workforce 21st century Innovation

56 Evolution of current Innovation System Virtual Communities Discovery Innovation Institutes New Universities New Educational Organizations Inducement Prizes 21st century Innovation

57 Drivers of Innovation

58 Worldwide shipments of Solar Photovoltaics – in Megawatts U.S. Photovoltaics Source: ARPA-E

59 JOBS We must create 17 million jobs in the next decade. a.Replace 6.7 million lost in recession, and b.Keep up with population, normal churn, and spark demand Source: William B. Bonvillian, Director, MIT Washington Office

60 JOBS We must create 17 million jobs in the next decade. a.Replace 6.7 million lost in recession, and b.Keep up with population, normal churn, and spark demand The IT revolution created 22 million jobs in a decade. Source: William B. Bonvillian, Director, MIT Washington Office

61 Relentless Change Grand Challenges Distributed Intelligence S&T Acceleration Globalization Internet Democracy

62 Life Sciences and Information Technology A new Enabling Technology? Macro Systems especially Energy Future of Venture Capital ? Disruptive Technologies For Grand Challenges Globalization of R&D Education Workforce 21st century Innovation Relentless Change Grand Challenges Distributed Intelligence S&T Acceleration Globalization Internet Democracy

63 Life Sciences and Information Technology A new Enabling Technology? Macro Systems especially Energy Future of Venture Capital ? Disruptive Technologies For Grand Challenges Globalization of R&D Education Workforce 21st century Innovation Evolution of Current Innovation System Virtual Communities Discovery Innovation Institutes New Universities New Educational Organizations Inducement Prizes 21st century Innovation Relentless Change Grand Challenges Distributed Intelligence S&T Acceleration Globalization Internet Democracy

64 Life Sciences and Information Technology A new Enabling Technology? Macro Systems especially Energy Future of Venture Capital ? Disruptive Technologies For Grand Challenges Globalization of R&D Education Workforce 21st century Innovation Evolution of Current Innovation System Virtual Communities Discovery Innovation Institutes New Universities New Educational Organizations Inducement Prizes 21st century Innovation Relentless Change Grand Challenges Distributed Intelligence S&T Acceleration Globalization Internet Democracy To Be Determined by A New Generation

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66 Engineering Education

67 Macro Systems Energy Environment Health Care Manufacturing Communications Logistics Nano Bio Info Social Science Natural Science Tiny Systems Engineering Education must reflect this.

68 Frontiers of Engineering Education Sharing and Propagating Innovation in Engineering Education

69 Frontiers of Engineering Education Sharing and Propagating Innovation in Engineering Education New FieldsNew Projects Experiential LearningOrganizing Knowledge IT and SimulationPersonalizing Learning Studio ApproachesEmerging Subjects Transdisciplinary LearningLaboratory Telepresence Rapid PrototypingSocietal Challenges Underserved CommunitiesEntrepreneurial Capabilities

70 Energy Environment Global Warming Sustainability Improve Medicine and Healthcare Delivery Reducing Vulnerability to Human and Natural Threats Expand and Enhance Human Capability And Joy Engineering Education must be oriented to the grand challenges.

71 Raleigh, NC, March 3-5, 2010 Duke, NCSU Engineer Better Medicines, Prevent Nuclear Terror, Nuclear fusion Phoenix, AZ, April 8-9, 2010 ASU Tools of Scientific Discovery, Energy/Sustainability, Managing N 2 Cycle Chicago, IL, April 21-22, 2010 IIT Carbon and Water Management, Health and Urban Infrastructure Boston, MA, April 21-22, 2010 Olin, Wellesley, Babson Educational Imperatives Seattle, WA, May 2-3, 2010 University of Washington TBD 2nd National Grand Challenge Summit October 6-7, 2010 University of Southern California

72 NAE Grand Challenge Scholars Programs Vanderbilt Florida Inst. of Tech. So. Illinois James Madison Louisiana Tech. Case Western Reserve Stanford Tufts Old Dominion NC State Georgia Tech MIT Tuskegee Wichita State WPI IIT Iowa UCLA Lafayette College Cal Poly Duke Olin College USC ASU Developing Established

73 Engineering Education must reverse this.

74 By Changing the Conversation A National Academy of Engineering Project Engineers help shape the future. Engineering is essential to our health, happiness, and safety. Engineers are creative problem solvers.

75 And by rediscovering The Amazing Disappearing Word

76 ENGINEER

77 We need to get it back into the vernacular.

78 What is important in Engineering Education Making universities and engineering schools exciting, creative, adventurous, rigorous, demanding, and empowering environments is more important than specifying curricular details.

79 What is important in Engineering Education Making universities and engineering schools exciting, creative, adventurous, rigorous, demanding, and empowering environments is more important than specifying curricular details. That ’ s what I learned at MIT.

80 Thank you.


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