Presentation on theme: "What is Validation? Validation in the Nordic countries National conference in Reykjávik Iceland on May 4, 2007 Nils Friberg NVL coordinator in Sweden and."— Presentation transcript:
What is Validation? Validation in the Nordic countries National conference in Reykjávik Iceland on May 4, 2007 Nils Friberg NVL coordinator in Sweden and for the Expert group on validation
Disposition Introduction What is validation and some general facts and terminology concerning validation and adult learning Nordic comparative study European outlook
What is Validation? Validation of Prior Learning Validation of Current Learning Assessment of today´s learning Assessment of prior learning
Terminology VPL: Validation of prior learning RPL: Recognition of Prior Learning/ Australia etc APEL: Assessment of Prior Experiential Learning/ Eire (Southern Ireland) APL: Assessment of Prior Learning/ United Kingdom PLA: Prior Learning Assessment/ Canada and USA and South Africa PLAR: Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition/ Canada
Validation (VPL) or recognition of prior learning ( RPL) - different terms used in the Nordic countries Realkompetencer (DK) Aiemmin opitun tunnistaminen ja tunnustaminen (FI) Raunfærni - raunfærnimat (IS) Realkompetanse (NO) Validering (SE)
What is Validation? Validation of prior learning is a processconsisting of many steps Identi- fication Clarific- ation Documen- tation Assess- ment Recog- nition
The process of validation of prior learning (VPL) Identi- fication Clarific- ation Documen- tation Assess- ment Recog- nition Steps 1,2,3,4,5 …
The process of VPL Methods 1,2,3,4,5 …… Interviews Portfolio methods InterviewsTestingCertification
The process of VPL Tools 1,2,3,4,5 …. Coaching to job/to studies /to training CV Portfolio of merits Career guidance Interview Self evaluation Flexible learning offers Validation for certificate/ competence certificate Tests
The process of VPL Divergent Convergent Summative Formative Steps 1, 2, 3…. Methods 1, 2, 3.… Tools 1, 2, 3….
The process of VPL – Quality assurance Steps 1,2, 3…. Methods 1, 2, 3 … Tools 1,2, 3 …. Quality assurance along the whole process Guidance and Counselling along the whole process
Iceland Pilot projects, development since 2004 National strategy and structure are in the pipeline Based mainly on the educational sector and its criteria, but also separate initiative in the labour market Target group: employees with low formal competence; no jobless people!
Denmark Adult Education Reform 1994 Adult Education Reform 2001 Mainly in the educational sector and working life sector, in relation to criteria from vocational training Also third sector initiatives ”early” National documentation tools for the labour market and the third sector
Norway Competence reform in 1992 Project on real competence 1999-2002 Establishing a national system for documentation of real competence. A national structure with documentation tools for all three sectors Still the educational sector in focus, but also third sector initiatives.
Finland A national competence based qualifications system, mainly for vocational competence, since 1994 Education and labour market Third sector initiatives ”of late” Individualisation and modularisation of adult education, start 2007
Sweden Validation introduced 1996 in the five-year Adult Education Initiative. Implementation and testing period during 2007- 2002 Pilot projects. National strategy based on Parliament Bill on adult learning and education from 2001 and Ministerial guidelines from 2003. National commission on validation 2004-2007 A national strategy will be presented. A divergent/explorative starting point. But often more convergent in practice.
Validation policy and practice in the Nordic countries an ongoing project based upon mid-term report by Åsa Hult, Valideringsdelegationen and Per Andersson, Linköping University, presented in Copenhagen, early March 2007 Facts and terminology
A Nordic study of validation Focus on policy Including initiatives in and experiences from practice Data: Questionnaires and interviews Informants: Mainly the NVL network on validation ‘Respondent validation’ A reference group
Three sectors Education Adult education and vocational training Labour market Third sector (Higher education not included here)
Validation The idea of giving recognition to prior learning, independent of where, when and how it has occurred, through documentation, assessment etc. Not assessment within/after a course, of what has been learnt in that very course Focus on how this idea is expressed
Convergence and Divergence in Nordic approaches Convergence - the interest in and valuing of informal and non-formal learning Divergence - difference in foci, approaches, terms etc.
Convergent or divergent assessments Convergent - If you know- Control Divergent - What you know - Explore Ends of a continuum A strictly convergent or divergent assessment is impossible, or at least difficult
Formative and Summative used in the connection of recognition of prior learning (RPL) or validation of prior learning (VPL) Formative: To inform and change the continuing learning process Summative: To sum up what has been learnt
Adult Education trends in the Nordic countries Individualisation Focus on TVE (Vocational training and Education Learning at the workplace Cross-sectoral cooperation Focus on low-skilled people - transformation of competence
Validation in Europe Michel Feutrie´s classification “Nothing happening…” - Bulgaria, Cyprus and Greece “First tries…” – Czechia, Hungary, Malte, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia “Limited initiatives” – Austria, Germany and Liechtenstein “Emerging arrangements” – Estonia, Lettonia, Lithuania, Iceland, Italy and Spain “Bottom up approaches” – The Netherlands, Ireland and Great Britain “Global systems” - Belgium, Denmark, France, Finland, Luxemburg, Norway, Portugal and Sweden
True for all Nordic countries Validation of prior learning, mainly in the educational sector Least is done in the third sector Social partners have been involved in developing validation of prior learning models Validation of prior learning is constantly under development No country has a system for all three sectors
System and structure System “A group of independent but interrelated elements comprising a unified whole”. Structure “The structure of a thing is how the parts of it relate to each other, how it is ‘put together’”.
Validation of prior learning possibilities and challenges Advantages Self-knowledge, self-confidence, motivation to study, shorter and cheaper education Legal right to validation More or less, except from in Iceland Problems The possibilities are not well-known Individualisation challenges economy, organisation and attitudes
VPL in the Nordic countries Different approaches and questions Both formative and summative Approaches. Often a formative function in relation to supplementary education/training “More formative than necessary?” Is knowledge fully valued, or is additional education seen as necessary?
The labour market sector Validation in the private sector exists The extent is not known Not related to national policy on validation
VPL in the Nordic countries - aims Different aims Bring unemployed into the labour market Strengthen the position of employees A tool for the employer to promote organisational development and in-service training
VPL in the Nordic countries - Third sector Interest in making learning from this sector visible and valuable Scepticism vis-à-vis assessment and documentation The freedom of the sector. How could central aspects like personal development, social competence, ”Bildung” etc. be assessed and documented?
VPL in the Nordic countries - Third sector Different aims of validation The benefit of the individual The formal merit, self-confidence, motivation Credit for non-formal learning/education Employers might be interested in competencies from the third sector. Making (learning in) the third sector visible
VPL in the Nordic countries - Third sector Policy recommendations for decision makers 1. The recognition of prior learning is a right of an individual 2. Validation is a means of motivating adults for lifelong learning 3. The cross-sectoral cooperation in policy making of validation 4. Guidance and Counseling; competence of counselors 5. Independent assessment bodies to be established 6. Research and development resources required Recommendations for providers of learning on non formal sector 7. Clarification of the special competences gained in non-formal learning 8. Making the voices of third sector (non formal organizations) heard in development work