5.3.2 Participatory Appraisals 2 Typology of Participation Participation can comprise passive participation, participation in information giving, participation by consultation, participation for material incentives, functional participation, interactive participation and self-mobilisation. Source:DFID 2002: 7.4
5.3.2 Participatory Appraisals 3 Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) Rapid Rural Appraisal involves communities in their own needs assessment, problem identification and ranking projects for implementation and community action plans and uses a wide range of tools, often within a focus group discussion format to elicit spatial, time related and social or institutional data.
5.3.2 Participatory Appraisals 4 Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) PRA is a growing family of approaches and methods enabling local people to share, analyse and enhance their knowledge of their living conditions, to plan and to act. The most common techniques used in PRA are cross-walking, semi-structured interviews, focus group discussion, preference ranking, mapping and modelling and seasonal and historical diagrams.
5.3.2 Participatory Appraisals 5 Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) PRA is a cross-disciplinary, cross-sectoral approach to engage communities in development through interactive and participatory processes; It builds upon the techniques of Rapid Rural Appraisal.
5.3.2 Participatory Appraisals 6 PRA in an Urban Context Participatory Urban Appraisal (PUA) applies the toolkit of PRA in an urban context. Participatory Urban Decision Making comprises four phases: preparatory and stakeholder analysis issue prioritisation and stakeholder commitment strategy formulation and implementation follow-up and consolidation.
5.3.2 Participatory Appraisals 7 Common Organisational Forms Task Force A small team (6-12) who work together temporarily to achieve a specific goal. Citizen Advisory Group A permanent and voluntary body made up of 15-20 representatives from relevant public sectors. Public Forum An event where a larger number of persons are gathered to exchange views and ideas on a specific issue. It is similar to a public hearing. Source: Urban Planning and Management Project, 2002: 28
5.3.2 Participatory Appraisals 8 Participatory Action Research (PAR) The key elements combine research, education and socio-political action. An experiential method to aquire reliable knowledge upon which to build power or countervailing power for the poor, oppressed and exploited groups and social classes and for their authentic organisation and movement. Oppressed groups should be enabled to acquire sufficient creative and transforming leverage to achieve the goals of social transformation.
5.3.2 Participatory Appraisals 9 City Consultation Principles Inclusiveness Continuity („not an end to itself“) Demand driven Bottom-up Co-operation, not confrontation Conflict resolution Flexibility
5.3.2 Participatory Appraisals 10 Elements of the City Development Strategy (CDS) Urban Pact Stakeholder Working Group Action Plan Operational Programme Formulation Demonstration Project Environmental Management Information Systems Conflict Resolution Monitoring Guidelines for Programme Evaluation Institutionalisation