Presentation on theme: "Hmmm….learning experiences…… younger older ‘Education is not preparation for life; education is life itself.’ ‘Education is not preparation for life; education."— Presentation transcript:
Hmmm….learning experiences…… younger older ‘Education is not preparation for life; education is life itself.’ ‘Education is not preparation for life; education is life itself.’ (John Dewey) home
the art, science or profession of teaching; especially education the art and science of teaching adults pedagogy *pedagogy andragogy *andragogy *Source: http://www.merriam-webster.com passive vs. active learning
In 1926, the American Association for Adult Education began and quickly started researching better ways to educate adults. Influenced by Dewey, Eduard C. Lindeman wrote in The Meaning of Adult Education: Our academic system has grown in reverse order. Subjects and teachers constitute the starting point, [learners] are secondary. In conventional education the [learner] is required to adjust himself to an established curriculum....Too much of learning consists of vicarious substitution of someone else's experience and knowledge. Psychology teaches us that we learn what we do....Experience is the adult learner's living textbook.
four assumptions about adults as learners Adults tend to be more self-directed as a result of their maturity. Adults possess personal histories which defines their identities and serve as a resource of experiential learning upon which new learning can be applied. Motivation in adults is directed to more socially relevant learning. Adult learners have interest in immediate application for problem-solving. Malcolm Knowles 1913 - 1997
Pedagogy ‘play’ vs. ‘work’ Andragogy The Learner The learner is dependent upon the instructor for all learning The teacher/instructor assumes full responsibility for what is taught and how it is learned The teacher/instructor evaluates learning self-directed responsible for his/her own learning Self-evaluation is characteristic of this approach Role of the Learner’s Experience The learner comes to the activity with little experience that could be tapped as a resource for learning The experience of the instructor is most influential The learner brings a greater volume and quality of experience Adults are a rich resource for one another Experience becomes the source of self-identify Different experiences assure diversity in groups of adults
Pedagogy Andragogy Readiness to Learn Students are told what they have to learn in order to advance to the next level of mastery Orientation to Learning Any change is likely to trigger a readiness to learn The need to know in order to perform more effectively in some aspect of one’s life is important Ability to assess gaps between where one is now and where one wants and needs to be Learning is a process of acquiring prescribed subject matter Content units are sequenced according to the logic of the subject matter Learners want to perform a task, solve a problem, live in a more satisfying way Learning must have relevance to real-life tasks Learning is organized around life/work situations rather than subject matter units active vs. passive learning
Pedagogy Andragogy Motivation for Learning Primarily motivated by external pressures, competition for grades, and the consequences of failure Internal motivators: self-esteem, recognition, better quality of life, self-confidence, self-actualization
Andragogy Adults are internally motivated* Adults have specific reasons for engaging* Adults bring life experience to their learning activities
Three basic components to any course site Make information (content) available to students Provide communication channels for students and instructors to share information and provide feedback Provide assessment tool(s) for evaluation INFORMAT ION COMMUNICATION ASSESSMENT
How can we accommodate the demands, limitations and requirements of adults and their multiple personal/social/professional commitments? How can we leverage the unique skills, talents and experiences adults bring to the classroom? How does an andragogical perspective change the traditional role of ‘teacher’?
Full-time job Responsibility for family/children How can we accommodate the demands, limitations and requirements of adults and their multiple personal/social/professional commitments? Synchronous or asynchronous? Course materials available from multiple channels? (streaming, RSS, wiki/blog sites) Flexibility when setting deadlines for assignments (what are deadlines for?) Alternatives for project completion Learning contracts Learning contracts “youth is wasted on the young” G.B. Shaw Online assessments (realistic tests: identify explicit knowledge requirements— practice tests—lists-recorded test reviews)
How can we leverage the unique skills, talents and experiences adults bring to the classroom? learning contracts student-led discussions group projects
How does an andragogical perspective change the traditional role of ‘teacher’? Instructor functions as guide and active participant in learning process Don’t teach students content ; teach students how to find and use content to achieve their learning goals Information is no longer difficult to access; the challenge now is to help students develop independent learning skills
Learning Contracts learning goal(s) learning goal(s) learning resources and strategies learning resources and strategies target date for completion target date for completion evidence of accomplishment of objective(s) evidence of accomplishment of objective(s) criteria and means for validating evidence criteria and means for validating evidence
Three basic components to any course site Make information (content) available to students Provide communication channels for students and instructors to share information and provide feedback Provide assessment tool(s) for evaluation INFORMAT ION COMMUNICATION ASSESSMENT 27/7; multiple sources; mobile apps Online testing; portfolios, projects authentic assessment; assessments that measure student-identified learning objectives Collaboration: student-student; student-teacher; student- other resources. Make sure communication functions to achieve student learning goals
Learning Contracts So, how do we design courses that maximize these concepts? Interaction /collaboration with instructors and peers Choosing content-allow students the freedom to pursue information that is of interest to them assessment Self/peer evaluation Have students define areas of interest Have students lead discussions Access to course content synchronous or asynchronous ? Documents, media, presentations available online ? RSS?
Learning is enhanced when it is immediately applicable to real-life contexts