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A HANDS-ON MATH CLASS Final Defense Presentation Presented to the Faculty of Philadelphia University Master of Science in Sustainable Design by David H.

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Presentation on theme: "A HANDS-ON MATH CLASS Final Defense Presentation Presented to the Faculty of Philadelphia University Master of Science in Sustainable Design by David H."— Presentation transcript:

1 A HANDS-ON MATH CLASS Final Defense Presentation Presented to the Faculty of Philadelphia University Master of Science in Sustainable Design by David H. Ross | August 2011 THE CASE FOR INTRODUCING STUDENTS TO SUSTAINABLE CAREERS

2 ABSTRACT SUMMARY This research identifies pressing social and economic issues that can be addressed by the creation of a hands-on math class. Students are introduced to sustainable career and technical fields by industry professionals who help math teachers develop coursework.

3 An experiential hands-on math class will be an effective means to expose students to career paths in sustainability. THESIS STATEMENT

4 Bruntland Commission 1987: “Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” Sustainability is also a call to action. WHAT IS SUSTAINABILITY?

5 Credit: Anna-Karin Engberg

6 2005 United Nations: Decade of education for sustainable development that aims to “challenge us all to adopt new behaviors and practices to secure our future.” Credit: Anna-Karin Engberg WHAT IS SUSTAINABILITY? Emphasized that education is an indispensable element for achieving sustainable development.

7 “Whenever it is possible, children should learn from real objects, the real world, and the experiences it offers.” - Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (Bennett 1926)

8 Vocab Groundwork CTE: Career and Technical Education STEM: Science, Technology, Engineering, and Manufacturing Pedagogy: Process or strategies in teaching

9 Obstacles 1.Lack of skilled trade professionals entering the workforce 2.Negative perception of skilled trades and CTE programs 3.Decline of Industrial Arts programs 4.Disconnect between schools and career professions

10

11 OBSTACLE 1: Lack of Skilled Trade Professionals Entering the Workforce

12 Unemployment is historically high at 9% OBSTACLE: SKILL SHORTAGE

13 Great Depression Current Unemployment Rate OBSTACLE: SKILL SHORTAGE

14 Mike Rowe testified before the Senate Commerce Committee in Spring “Today, there are over 200,000 vacant positions in American manufacturing, 450,000 in trades, transportation, and utilities… The skills gap is real, and it’s getting wider.” OBSTACLE: SKILL SHORTAGE

15 More than 25 percent of the working population will reach retirement age by 2012, resulting in a potential shortage of nearly 10 million skilled workers. -U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (Ratzenberger, 2010) Image: OBSTACLE: SKILL SHORTAGE

16 worst-jobs.com

17 OBSTACLE 2: Negative Perception of Skilled Trades and CTE Programs worst-jobs.com

18 “These career trades have long been lumped together in the mind of the pundit class as ‘blue collar’ and their requiem is intoned” - Matthew Crawford Shop Class As Soulcraft OBSTACLE: NEGATIVE PERCEPTION

19 Mike Rose writes in The Mind At Work: “It is as though in our cultural iconography we are given the muscled arm, sleeve rolled tight against biceps, but no thought bright behind the eye, no image that links hand and brain.” OBSTACLE: NEGATIVE PERCEPTION

20 This negative perception can be mainly attributed to the period of time (1970’s) in which federal legislation shifted its focus on career training for the masses to occupational training and academic achievement with an emphasis on special needs students. (Hayward 1993) Notion became that all students along this track were of an inferior educational capacity, destined for “blue- collar” work. OBSTACLE: NEGATIVE PERCEPTION

21 2010 RIDGID Student Survey: 54% believe there is a better future working in computers than working in skilled trades. 37% of young people believe working in an office is more respected than working with your hands. 25% of young people believe skilled trades jobs are old-fashioned. OBSTACLE: NEGATIVE PERCEPTION

22 “Skilled labor is becoming one of the few sure paths to a good living” Wall Street Journal Example: Experienced Plumber: $65 an hour/ 7hrs a day Will make $118,000 a year OBSTACLE: NEGATIVE PERCEPTION

23

24 OBSTACLE 3: Decline of Industrial Arts Programs

25 Industrial Arts Courses Grew out of the manual training movement in the late 1800s Rested on the belief that all students should learn to work with their hands as well as their minds. (Gallinelli 1979) OBSTACLE: DECLINE OF HANDS-ON LEARNING

26 1985 – Articles began to appear: – “The Soaring Technology Revolution” – “Preparing Kids for High-Tech and the Global Future” (Crawford 3) OBSTACLE: DECLINE OF HANDS-ON LEARNING s - Many schools began replacing industrial arts with technology education, which emphasizes introducing students to the “high technology” of the information age. (Levesque 67)

27 SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics Average number of credits earned in introductory technology courses OBSTACLE: DECLINE OF HANDS-ON LEARNING

28

29 Obstacle 4: Disconnect Between Schools and Career Professions

30 Contributing factor is the adoption of standardized testing. In 2010, Pennsylvania adopted Common Core State Standards (CCSS) which set national expectations for Math, Science, and English. CCSS is simply a framework. Current implementations are taught in traditional settings. Race To The Top initiative rewards millions of dollars for test scores alone. OBSTACLE: CLASSROOM DISCONNECT

31 “We have a generation of students that can answer questions on standardized tests, know factoids, but they can’t do anything.” -Jim Aschwanden Executive Director of the California Agricultural Teachers Association (Rebuilding Shop Classes in U.S. High Schools 2006) OBSTACLE: CLASSROOM DISCONNECT

32 The overall purpose of education is to ensure that the United States has a skilled workforce and engaged citizenry to keep our nation, economy, communities, and families healthy and productive.” (Brand 2008) OBSTACLE: CLASSROOM DISCONNECT

33 Obstacle Summary Hands-On Math Class Will Address: – Skills shortage – “it’s real, it’s growing” – Stigma attached to skilled trades and STEM – Decline of hands-on learning environment – Disconnect between schools and industry

34 History of Hands On Education Past leaders of the experiential education: John Dewey Early 1900’s American philosopher, psychologist and educational reformer Rudolf Steiner Early 1900’s Austrian philosopher and educator

35 In the 1920’s, Dewey became popular for pointing out that modern traditional education was too concerned with delivering knowledge, and not enough with understanding student’s actual experiences. (Neill 2005) HISTORY OF HANDS-ON EDUCATION John Dewey Father of Modern Experiential Education

36 Students need educational experiences that “enable them to become valuable, equal, and responsible members of society”. (Neil) Theory of Experience – Continuity – learn from every experience – Interaction – how those past experiences interact with present situation HISTORY OF HANDS-ON EDUCATION John Dewey Father of Modern Experiential Education

37 HISTORY OF HANDS-ON EDUCATION Believed education should: be designed to meet the changing needs of a child as they develop physically, mentally, and emotionally. provide young people the basis on which to develop into free, morally responsible and integrated individuals. (Lewis 2001) Rudolph Steiner Creator of Waldorf Education Schools

38 Waldorf Schools: Specific curriculum requirements for history, geography, mathematics, languages, literature, science, and handwork. Recommended that children be able to concentrate on one subject at a time. Engage the student so they are enthusiastic about the material being covered. (Lewis 2001) HISTORY OF HANDS-ON EDUCATION

39 Dewey and Steiner’s theories compliment each other. Both provide customized student experiences Helped to shape future experiential education programs HISTORY OF HANDS-ON EDUCATION

40 RESEARCH STUDIES 1.National Research Center for Career and Technical Education (NRCCTE): Math in Career and Technology Education 1.PURDUE UNIVERSITY: Exploring the Effectiveness of an Interdisciplinary Water Resources Engineering Module in an Eighth Grade Science Course

41 NRCCTE: Math-in-CTE 2005: Tested a model of curriculum integration to improve CTE student’s mathematical understanding. RESEARCH STUDIES

42 RESEARCH STUDIES NRCCTE: Math-in-CTE 1 CTE teacher + 1 math teacher 10 days workshop to develop curriculum Taught over 1 semester Conducted at classroom level 1 experimental group and 1 control group

43 RESEARCH STUDIES NRCCTE: Math-in-CTE NRCCTE Model: Based on seven-step pedagogy built on theories of contextual learning and transfer. Created to guide the development and instruction of math- enhanced CTE lesson plans. Mathematics taught in CTE courses should arise directly out of occupational content rather than forced into it.

44 RESEARCH STUDIES NRCCTE: Math-in-CTE 7 Elements of Math-Enhanced Lesson: 1.Introduce the CTE lesson 2.Assess students’ math awareness as it relates to the CTE lesson 3.Work through the math example embedded in the CTE lesson 4.Work through related, contextual math-in-CTE examples 5.Work through traditional math examples 6.Students demonstrate their understanding 7.Formal assessment

45 After one year exposure, experimental classrooms performed significantly higher on two of three math posttests administered. RESEARCH STUDIES Building Academic Skills in Context: Testing the Value of Enhanced Math Learning in CTE

46 RESEARCH STUDIES NRCCTE: Math-in-CTE Takeaway Principles: 1.Develop and sustain a community of practice. 2.Begin with the CTE curriculum and not the math curriculum. 3.Understand that math is an essential workplace skill. 4.Maximize the math in the CTE curriculum. 5.Recognize that CTE teachers are teachers of Math-in-CTE and not math teachers.

47 Exploring the Effectiveness of an Interdisciplinary Water Resources Engineering Module in an Eighth Grade Science Course 2008 study with 8 th graders Looked at whether participating in engineering design modules helps students learn and retain more information. Analyze socio-economic status, race, and gender influences. RESEARCH STUDIES

48 Exploring the Effectiveness of an Interdisciplinary Water Resources Engineering Module in an Eighth Grade Science Course 126 students in 10 different classes Racially diverse middle school Same textbook 5 classes traditional | 5 classes designed water purification device (up to 10% class time) RESEARCH STUDIES

49 Graphs representing the changes in student evaluation scores based on classroom (control vs. treatment) showing the differences in gains by the student demographic groups. RESEARCH STUDIES Study: Hands-on projects may be best way to teach engineering and technology concepts

50 Student who built the purification device had higher scores and a much higher degree of improvement than the traditionally taught students. RESEARCH STUDIES Study: Hands-on projects may be best way to teach engineering and technology concepts

51 There was no difference based on grades, race and ethnicity, socio-economic status and gender RESEARCH STUDIES Study: Hands-on projects may be best way to teach engineering and technology concepts

52 “In every area we tested, the students who were involved in a hands-on project learned more and demonstrated a deeper understanding of the issues than the traditional group.” -Melissa Dark, Assistant dean for strategic planning RESEARCH STUDIES

53 Findings: Exposing students to relevant, hands-on math projects increases scores. Studies clearly demonstrate significant improvements in comprehension and understanding of subject matter. RESEARCH STUDIES

54 EXISTING PROGRAMS

55 EXISTING PROGRAMS West Philly Hybrid X Team After school automotive program Builds and designs high-efficient vehicles Competes nationally: PIAXP, Tour de Sol Gives students pride in accomplishments

56 “When you engage kids’ creativity and curiosity to solve real problems—it doesn’t have to be electric cars; it could be designing green roofs or emission- free water heaters or cleaning up the waterways—the learning is real.” -Simon Hauger, Program Director (Stabert 17) WEST PHILLY HYBRID X TEAM

57 Prizes and attention are no match to the experience and satisfaction. West Philadelphia High School, graduation rate is 50%, yet these students are successful academically. President Obama discussed the West Philly team’s success in a September 2010 speech about science and technology education. WEST PHILLY HYBRID X TEAM

58 The Academy For Career Education (ACE) EXISTING PROGRAMS

59 ACE Focuses on hands-on learning in: – Construction – Engineering – Computer-Aided Design and Drafting (CADD) – Diesel Equipment Technology Partners with local industry professionals to give students real-life, relevant problems and answers. Teaches students how to use the skills they’re learning in the real world. ACADEMY FOR CAREER EDUCATION

60 ACE Successes: SkillsUSA competition WINNERS – 2008: 5 gold, 8 silver Local industry recruits directly from students in the academy 60% employed at graduation (Today's Students. Tomorrow's Success Stories 2011) ACADEMY FOR CAREER EDUCATION

61 Outward Bound Nationwide educational organization and expedition school Serves youths, teens, and adults Hikes, retreats, rock- climbing, urban adventures EXISTING PROGRAMS

62 OB Successes: Inspires character development, self-discovery, and community service Confidence building, interpersonal skills Getting students out of the classroom to learn Doesn’t necessarily adhere to curriculum requirements OUTWARD BOUND

63 Summarizing Existing Programs: Current programs address hands-on education and student engagement in unique ways. – West Philly Hybrid X: Engaging students – ACE: Industry Connection – Outward Bound: Character development BUT, none are designed for widespread adoption and CCSS curriculum. EXISTING PROGRAMS

64 The Hands-on Math Class The course’s goal is to connect students to sustainable careers in the skilled trades and STEM professions. Replacement of middle school math class.

65 One semester course Follows timeline of traditional math class Math teachers work with local industry professionals to develop curriculum-based projects. Based on Common Core State Standards (CCSS) Designed to be robust and relevant to the real world Reflecting the knowledge and skills that our young people need for success in college and careers HANDS-ON MATH CLASS

66 Math concepts that are built upon in 7 th and 8 th grade: Rational and Proportional Relations (RP) The Number System (NS) Expressions and Equations (EE) Geometry (G) Statistics and Probability (SP) HANDS-ON MATH CLASS

67 Based on Common Core State Standards In Grade 7, instructional time should focus on four critical areas: Developing understanding of and applying proportional relationships Developing understanding of operations with rational numbers and working with expressions and linear equations Solving problems involving scale drawings and informal geometric constructions, and working with two- and three- dimensional shapes to solve problems involving area, surface area, and volume Drawing inferences about populations based on samples. HANDS-ON MATH CLASS

68 Based on Common Core State Standards In Grade 8, instructional time should focus on three critical areas: Formulating and reasoning about expressions and equations, including modeling an association in bivariate data with a linear equation Grasping the concept of a function and using functions to describe quantitative relationships Analyzing two- and three-dimensional space and figures using distance, angle, similarity, and congruence, and understanding and applying the Pythagorean Theorem. HANDS-ON MATH CLASS

69 “Math in Sustainable Career Paths” Students apply core math concepts to career fields via connections with industry professionals. The course will introduce students to the following career paths: 1.Engineering Infrastructure: Development and Maintenance 2.Construction Efficiency: Building Efficiency, Energy Modeling 3.Technical Specialty: Energy Technology: Solar, Wind, Electrical Network. HANDS-ON MATH CLASS

70 SCHEDULE: Week 1: Introduction Week 2: Engineering Infrastructure Week 3: Engineering Infrastructure Week 4: Construction Efficiency Week 5: Construction Efficiency Week 6: Technical Specialty Week 7: Technical Specialty Week 8: Review Week 9: Final Examination HANDS-ON MATH CLASS

71 Sample Assignment For Engineering Infrastructure assignment (1A), we will be traveling to a construction site where an engineering firm is preparing to build a foundation for a multi-story LEED certifiable building. Our students have been asked to take core samples, calculate their density and resistance, and then apply these findings to the project outlined in Assignment 1A. Feedback and guidance from the site engineer will provide students a glimpse into an interesting and possible career path.

72 Assignment 1A OBJECTIVE Design foundation system for a high- rise building. SAMPLE ASSIGNEMENT

73 GIVEN INFORMATION Building lot size = 200 ft long x 200 ft wide Building height = 100 ft tall Total Building load = 220,000,000 lbs. Foundation system = We will be supporting the building using deep foundations called “drilled piers”. We drill circular holes into the ground, remove the soil, replace it with concrete, and put a reinforcing steel rebar cage inside the concrete before it hardens. Because the soils are expected to be too soft to support our building load, the piers need to go deep underground and rest on top of hard rock. SAMPLE ASSIGNEMENT Assignment 1A

74 SUBSURFACE INVESTIGATION PLAN We need to know what we are constructing this building on, and we need a glimpse of what the underground soil and rock looks like. We use soil “borings” to determine this: we “bore” a 2.5- inch diameter hole in the ground to a certain depth, collect soil samples (or “cores”), and run laboratory tests to determine strength. Q1. We need at least 1 boring every 50 feet. What is the minimum number of borings we need on this lot? Assume a 50-ft radius to calculate area represented by each boring (recall that the area of a circle = π/4*D 2 ). Round up to a whole number. Q2. Each boring must extend a total of 150 feet below ground surface. Given the number of borings computed in Q1, how many linear feet (LF) of borings do we need? Q3. The cost of borings is $30/LF. How much will the subsurface borings cost? SAMPLE ASSIGNEMENT Assignment 1A

75 SUBSURFACE INVESTIGATION PLAN We need to know what we are constructing this building on, and we need a glimpse of what the underground soil and rock looks like. We use soil “borings” to determine this: we “bore” a 2.5- inch diameter hole in the ground to a certain depth, collect soil samples (or “cores”), and run laboratory tests to determine strength. Q1. We need at least 1 boring every 50 feet. What is the minimum number of borings we need on this lot? Assume a 50-ft radius to calculate area represented by each boring (recall that the area of a circle = π/4*D 2 ). Round up to a whole number. Q2. Each boring must extend a total of 150 feet below ground surface. Given the number of borings computed in Q1, how many linear feet (LF) of borings do we need? Q3. The cost of borings is $30/LF. How much will the subsurface borings cost? SAMPLE ASSIGNEMENT Assignment 1A G Geometry RP Rational and Proportional Relationships NS The Number System Hands-On Activity

76 Class Implementation Recruitment for hands-on math class Parental Level – Information Guide/Website – Encourage to ask schools for hands-on math class – More information, resources, updates Administrative Level – Information Guide/Website – Encourages faculty conversation about course viability – Connect with interested professionals, groups, and industries

77 Conclusion Serious Need For Skilled Labor Possible to overcome these obstacles – Skills Gap – Perception of these careers – Decline of Industrial Arts – Classroom disconnect A hands-on math class like this is a direct approach to overcome national economic and social obstacles.

78 Thank You!


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