* William Hoffman * Walden University * Richard W. Riley School of Education and Leadership * EdD Student * EDUC 8101-2
A. Historical significance 1. The student will be shown the history associated with an athletic technique. 2. Although the individual technique will not be broken down, each student will begin to grasp an understanding that athletic techniques are governed by laws that have been studied forcenturies. B. Practical significance 1. The student will be shown various learning theories as they evolved and how each one may be applied to the athletic technique. 2. The student will be expected to grasp one-several of the learning theories and be able to utilize the theory(s) in their own individual coaching style. 3. Players may also grasp various learning theories and apply them to their own individual technique.
Acts get stronger with positive reinforcement. “the idea that bonds between stimulus and response take the form of neural connections. Learning involves the "stamping in" of connections, forgetting involves "stamping out" connections” (Cooper, n.d.).
* Law of Effect a) Responses to a situation that are followed by satisfaction are strengthened; and b) Responses that are followed by discomfort are weakened (Human Intelligence, 2007). * Law of Readiness a series of responses can be chained together to satisfy some goal which will result in annoyance if blocked (Tip, n.d.). * Law of Exercise The law of exercise specifies that the connection was established because the S-R pairing occurred many times (the law of effect) and was rewarded (law of effect) as well as forming a single sequence (law of readiness) (Tip, n.d.).
* SATISFACTION * Improvement through reward, immediate feedback. * Repetition will strengthen learning.
* learning is dependent on the learners readiness to act * a series of responses can be chained together to satisfy some goal which will result in annoyance if blocked
* Come to practice ready to learn. * Explanation of material will be dealt with in the following fashion. * Visualization- Players will be shown the proper technique * Explanation- Material and techniques will be presented orally * Demonstration- Proper execution by one of the accomplished players
PROPER SPEED * ½ speed for understanding * ¾ speed for confidence * Full speed for perfection
* “the behavior is followed by a consequence, and the nature of the consequence modifies the organism's tendency to repeat the behavior in the future.” A behavior followed by a reinforcing stimulus results in an increased probability of that behavior occurring in the future” (Boeree, C.G., 1998).
* 1. How would Edward Thorndike coach a kicker? * 2. Let’s assume a kicker gets homesick and wants to drop out of school. What advice do you think Abraham Maslow would have for him? * 3. How would you explain VMBR or mental rehearsal to someone? * 4. The game is tied and you are the coach. What do you tell the kicker before he attempts the game winning field goal? What learning theorist would it parallel?
* Amaral, J., & Sabbatini, R. (n.d.). What is a conditioned reflex? Retrieved from http://www.cerebromente.org.br/n09/mente/pavlov_i.htm * Aristotle. (1945). Progression of animals. Translated by E.S. Foster. Cambridge: Harvard University * Armand, T. (2007, August 9). Motivation-why?. Retrieved from http://www.armannd.com/motivation.html * Assis, AKT. (2008). The law of gravity and the first law of mechanics. Montreal: C. Roy Keys. * Atherton, J. S. (2010). Learning and teaching: Experiential learning. Retrieved from http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/ experience.html * Behaviorism. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.funderstanding.com/content/behaviorism http://www.funderstanding.com/content/behaviorism * Boeree, C. G. (1998). B. F. Skinner. Retrieved September 19, 2003 from http://www.ship.edu/%7Ecgboeree/skinner.html * Connectionism theory (E. Thorndike). (n.d.) Retrieved from http://tip.psychology.org/thorn.html * Cooper, J., & Glassow, R. (1972). Kinesiology. Saint Louis: The C.V. Mosby Company.
* Cooper, S. (n.d.). Theories of learning in educational psychology. Retrieved from http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/behaviorism/ http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/behaviorism/ Thorndike.html * Constructivist theory (J. Bruner). (n.d.). Retrieved from http://tip.psychology.org/bruner.html * Discovery Learning (Bruner) at Learning Theories. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.learning-theories.com/discovery-learning-bruner.html * Gisel, H. (n.d.). Does your mind limit your body?. Retrieved from http://ezinearticles.com/?Does-Your-Mind-Limit-Your-Body?-Get-To-Know-Your- Physical-Limits!&id=5160128 http://ezinearticles.com/?Does-Your-Mind-Limit-Your-Body?-Get-To-Know-Your- * Hall, K.J. (n.d.). Carl rogers. Retrieved from http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/rogers.htm * Heath, T.L. (1953). The works of archimedes. New York: Dover Publications. * Infed. (n.d.). david a. kolb on experiential learning. Retrieved from http://www.infed.org/biblio/b-explrn.htm * Knowledge Base. (n.d.). Experiential learning (Kolb). Retrieved from http://www.learning-theories.com/experiential-learning-kolb.html http://www.learning- * PBS. (1998). Watson launches behaviorist school of psychology. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/dh13wa.html
* Simons, J. (1987). Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Retrieved from http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/ intranet/committee/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/maslow.htm * Sports. (n.d.). Law of readiness. Retrieved from http://sports.jrank.org/pages/9303/law-readiness.html http://sports.jrank.org/pages/9303/law- * Nobel Foundation. (2010). The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1904: Ivan Pavlov. Retrieved November 15, 2010, from http://nobelprize.org/nobelprizes/medicine/la ureates/1904/pavlov-bio.htmlhttp://nobelprize.org/nobelprizes/medicine/la * Operant conditioning (B.F. Skinner). (n.d.). Retrieved from http://tip.psychology.org/skinner.html * Theories in practice: Operant conditioning. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://tip.psychology.org/skinner.html * Thorndike, E. (1932). The fundamentals of learning. New York: Teachers College Press. * Thorndike, E. (1911) Animal Intelligence. New York: The Macmillan company * USD. (n.d.). History of biomechanics and kinesiology. Retrieved from http://people.usd.edu/~jarichar/HIST.html