Presentation on theme: "TRANSITIVIY CHOICES. Experiential metafunction offers us: Resources to encode our experience of the world To convey a picture of reality."— Presentation transcript:
Experiential metafunction offers us: Resources to encode our experience of the world To convey a picture of reality
The Clause: What What is happening Who Who is taking part circumstances Surrounding circumstances (eg; where, when, how, etc. ) Gives information about:
John and Gladys Building up a Clause Participant
are standing John and Gladys are standing Building up a Clause Participant + process
Building up a Clause under the umbrella John and Gladys are standing under the umbrella. Participant + process + circumstance
Functional constituents of the clause PARTICIPANTS PROCESSES CIRCUNSTANCES Realized by nominal groups Realized by verbal groups Realized by adverbial group, prepositional phrase or nominal group
Different kind of process : MATERIAL MENTAL VERBAL BEHAVIOURAL EXISTENTIAL RELATIONAL
Processes Processes connect participants and their circumstances Material Processes Harry bowls. Relational Processes Paul has a big belly. Mental Processes Alice feels proud. Verbal Processes Sisters chat.
Material Processes indicate physical actions skip Children skip. hit Mike hit the ball. chased The dog chased the cat under the fence.
Participant’s roles in material process Actor Goal Range Beneficiary Diana went to Geneva She carried the bomb They were playing tennis They give me a car
Mental Processes express thoughts or feelings felt The diver felt nervous. wondered Mr Harris wondered if the fish would bite. believed He believed that she was telling the truth.
Mental verbs Think Know Understand Love Hate Like Want Cognition Affection Perception
Participant’s roles mental processes Senser Phenomenon I saw Marisa this afternoon Peter doesn’t believe in God
Mental processes ( except those of perception)allows projection : Two ways of projecting: By Quoting - I Thought “ I will go and give Blood” By reporting - I Thought that I’d go and give the Blood PROJECTED CLAUSES Projecting
Verbal Processes To talk about what was said shouted “Gold ! Gold !” shouted the prospector. chat The girls chat on the way home. screamed Randal screamed at the dog to be quiet.
Verbal verbs Ask Tell Say Chat Talk Speak Gossip
Participant’s roles in verbal processes Sayer Receiver Verbiage I tell him the truth I made you a question
Verbal process allows projection: By quoting ( Direct speech) I said “ Can you avoid the scar tissue? “ By reporting ( Indirect speech) I asked them to avoid the scar tissue PROJECTED CLAUSES Projecting
Behavioural Processes indicates psychological and physiological activity The baby cried for hours The woman was laughing loudly.. He smiled a broad smile
BEHAVIORUAL VERBS Cry Laugh Study Watch Listen Smile Sniff Look over stare Dream Taste Work out breathe Scowl
Participant’s roles in behavioural processes Behavier Behaviour Most behavioural processes have only one participant ( behavier) Behavoural processes often occur with circumstantial elements of manner and cause. The baby cried for hours He smiles a broad smile
Existential Processes indicates existence There are two children under the tree There is snow in the street
Existential verbs There is/ are There was/ were
Participant’s roles in Existential processes EXISTENT This participant follows the “ there is/ are” There is snow in the street Circumstances of location are common in existential processes.
Relational Processes indicates states of being or having is It is windy today. has Mr Taylor has a broken leg. have Those dogs have very sharp teeth !
Relational verbs Be Have Others replacing “be” or “have”
Participant’s roles Relational processes FOR ATTRIBUTE PROCESSES CARRIER – ATTRIBUTE EX: You are very skinny I am not weak FOR IDENTIFYING PROCESSES TOKEN – VALUE Ex: You are the skinniest one here
are the people, things, places or ideas participating in a process being spoken or written about Participants Ned Kelly Sydney Opera House greed banana
Human Dad reads the paper. Participants Participants maybe categorised as Non Human My birthday cake is delicious. or
concrete The jug was full. Participants Participants maybe categorised as abstract Happiness is precious. or
specific those children are skipping. Participants Participants maybe categorised as Non specific sharks are dangerous.. or
Participants Noun Groups Participants are represented by Noun Groups The five wonderful Yeppoon singers.DeterminerNumerativeDescriberClassifierThing TheFiveWonderfulYeppoonsingers
Noun Groups can contain the following elements Determiners the children her children those childrenNumeratives two children a couple of children some children Describers attractive children tall children naughty children Classifiers school children primary children Australian children
determinernumerative describerclassifier thing Building a Noun Group
determinernumerative describerclassifier thing Building a Noun Group
determinernumerative describerclassifier thing Building a Noun Group his kitten
determinernumerative describerclassifier thing Building a Noun Group his kitten his three kittens
determinernumerative describerclassifier thing Building a Noun Group his kitten his three cute kittens his three kittens
determinernumerative describerclassifier thing Building a Noun Group his kitten his three cute Siamese kittens his three cute kittens his three kittens
Circumstances Circumstances refer to how, how far, how long, how often, when, where, with whom and as what in a clause.
when ?where ?with what ? why ?how far ? how long ?with whom ?about what ? as what ?how ?how often ?
Circumstances Circumstances are realized through Prepositional Phrases Adverbial Groups Noun Groups
Circumstances Circumstances give information about how, when, where or why a process takes place and can be reported by prepositional phrases
Prepositions Prepositions are parts of speech that indicate relationships between words. Usually this relationship is expressed in terms of timespace time and space
Prepositions of Place ininsideontofrom overbelowbeforewith atpastin front ofacross amidofthroughoutout outsideuponupunder besidebehindwithoutnear afteralongagainstamong forout ofoffto downabovebeneathbeyond withinbynext to around throughexceptbetweeninto
Prepositions of Time beforeafter bysince inon soonlater duringat tiluntil fromfor
phrase A phrase is a small group of words that makes some sense but does not contain a finite verb. Many phrases begin with a preposition.
in my boot There was a stone in my boot.
with the black That dog with the black tail tail belongs to Mikarla.
after Craig left the field after the bowler’s appeal.
Where ? Dave works in his office. When ? Dave arrived for work after Jan. With what ? Dave works with a computer. Why ? Dave couldn’t work because of the storm.
How long ? Dave has worked for many years. How far ? Dave travels to work for three kilometres. About what ? Dave spoke to Gloria about her work. As what ? Dave works as an accountant. With whom ? Dave works with his secretary Gloria.
Circumstances Circumstances give information about how, when, where how often and to what degree a process takes place and can be reported adverbial groups by adverbial groups
Adverbs Adverbs are modifiers that say something extra about a verb, adjective or another adverb. When one or more adverb is used adverbial group to describe a process it is called an adverbial group.
When ? Stella arrived for work very early. Degree ? Stella almost had the dress ready. How ? Stella cuts the fabric very carefully. How often ? Stella rarely pins the fabric. Where ? Stella was working there.
Circumstances Circumstances give information about where and when a process takes place and can be noun groups reported by noun groups
Where ? Elvis practices the piano downstairs. When ? Elvis has a concert next week.
How long ? Elvis practices the piano all day long.
Across the water Over the bridge Through the tunnel At midnight Before breakfast With my pushbike Carefully Because of the mud For a long time With my little brother About the flat tyre As a pilot Quickly Last night Circumstances
Nominalisation is the changing of a process into a participant
fell The rain fell heavily. Can be changed to falling of the rain The falling of the rain was heavy.