Education – B.A. Knox College (1961), M.A. Harvard University (1964), and PhD Harvard University (1967) Profession - Professor of Organizational Behavior, Weatherhead School of Management, Case Western Reserve University (Smith, 1996)
Interests – nature of individuals and social change, experiential learning, career development, and executive and professional education Accomplishments – contributions to thinking around organizational behaviour, several academic honors, publications, articles, four honorary degrees, etc. Legacy – American educational theorist with contributions to instructional development: Experiential Learning Model & Learning Style Model
Kolb’s Experiential Learning theorized that people develop preferences for different learning styles in the same way they develop any other sort of style. Kolb found that there are four combinations of perceiving and processing that determine the four learning styles and they must be present in order for learning to occur. (Clark, 2000)
Kolb’s theory is built on six propositions. Learning: is best conceived as a process, not necessarily in terms of outcomes. is relearning. requires the resolution of conflicts between dialectically opposed modes of adaptation to the world. is a holistic process of adaptation to the world. results from synergetic transactions between the person and the environment. is the process of creating knowledge. (Kolb & Kolb 2005, p 2)
Learning styles are defined on a two- dimensional scale based on how a person perceives and processes information. Perception is classified as concrete experience or abstract conceptualization. Processing is classified as active experimentation or reflective observation.
Kolb described the process of experiential learning as a four-stage cycle involving four adaptive learning modes: Concrete Experience (CE) - Concrete experiential learners tend towards peer orientation and benefit most often from discussion with fellow CE learners. Reflective Observation (RO) - Reflective observers rely primarily on careful observation in making judgments. (Kolb & Kolb 2005, p2-3)
Abstract Conceptualization (AC) - Abstract conceptualizers are more oriented towards symbols and learn better in an authority- directed, impersonal learning situation that emphasize theory and systematic analysis and problem solving Active Experimentation (AE) - Active experimenters represent an active, “doing” orientation to learning that relies heavily on experimentation and learned best while engaging in projects.
Kolb also identified four learning style groups based on the four learning modes: Divergent Assimilators Convergent Accommodators (Kolb & Kolb, 2005, p 5)
The aim is to increase learners’ capacity for meta- cognitive control of their learning process This enables them to monitor and select learning approaches that work best for them in different learning situations. By providing a language for talking about learning styles and the learning process (through the Learning Styles Inventory), conversation can be fostered among learners and educators about how to create the most effective learning environment for those involved. (Kolb & Kolb, 2005, p 8)
Kolb's Learning Style Instrument (LSI) initiated a starting point for designing online instruction (Polhemus, Swan, Danchak, and Assis 2005). Teaching and Learning Four steps to instructional design Motivating students to learn using a variety of instructional resources Online Instruction and Teaching to the Four Modes
Family man – married to Ellen Winner/ four children Education – has obtained honorary degrees from twenty-two colleges and universities, including institutions in Ireland, Italy, Israel, and Chile Profession – Professor of Cognition & Education at Harvard Graduate School of Education, Adjunct Professor of Psychology at Harvard University, and Senior Director of Harvard Project Zero.
Accomplishments – numerous honors, fellowship awards, and honorary degrees Author – over twenty books, translated into twenty-seven languages, and several hundred articles Projects – Project Zero, GoodWork Legacy – best known for his theory of multiple intelligences.
Gardners' theory of multiple intelligences suggests that individuals obtain knowledge in various ways due to varying learning styles and that individuals should focus on developing their particular intelligence to enhance learning abilities. Also, instructors providing assessments should measure all forms of intelligences to ensure learning has occurred.
Timeline – during 1983 and edited in 1997 Description – three principles of Gardner’s Theory Learners should be encouraged to use their preferred intelligences in learning. Instructional activities should address different forms of intelligence. Assessments of learning should measure multiple forms of intelligence.
The categories of intelligence proposed by Gardner (as defined by Armstrong) are: Verbal-Linguistic Musical Logical-Mathematical Visual-Spatial Bodily-Kinesthetic Interpersonal Intrapersonal Naturalistic
Students can become more aware and active learners who able to understand and more fully participate their own learning and development. May lead students to achieve greater degrees of academic success and develop a greater appreciation for their individual strengths
Gardner’s Influence Current instructional designers need to create educational materials that is instructionally sound while being delivered effectively through their intended media (Gallagher, 2003) Technology is merely a tool that we can use to educate, but one that shouldn’t dictate educational goals (Gardner) Multiple Intelligences and Online Formats Motivating students to learn using a variety of instructional resources
Instructors adopt the role of facilitator empowering and encouraging students to pursue their studies in the most effective ways possible rather than lecture-driven experts controlling the dissemination of knowledge The theories suggest several ways in which the material might be presented to facilitate more effective learning that might not be possible using more traditional or strictly language based instruction.
Instructors may need to re-examine how they regard the ideas of intelligence and learning May also need to adjust their teaching philosophies and strategies, possibly implementing a greater degree of activity/assignment types
At the beginning of this course, we completed an assessment survey to determine our individual learning styles. Based on Gardner's theory of multiple intelligence, list some of the types of software or programs available that an instructional designer could use to meet your learning style. Example: A digital video to meet the needs of the visual and auditory learner.
Gardner and Kolb have both had an impact on the instructional design process. Which theorist has had a greater impact? Why?
While both Kolb and Gardner have received numerous compliments and awards for their work, they have also received criticisim. If you could modify either Kolb or Gardner's theory, what would you change? Justify your answer.
Our presentation has highlighted the many aspects of Gardner's Multiple Intelligences and Kolb's Learning Styles. Reviewing this presentation we can note that both men are highly educated. They are heavily researched in their fields and respected among the educational community. Both men believe that individuals learn differently even if they disagree on how individuals learn. Kolb believes there are four learning styles while Gardner argues for seven learning styles. Both believe in the assessment process as well as engaging the learner in real life experiences. In this presentation, we have acknowledged their many differences and similarities, we must remember above all that both have strived for a better educational system, one in which the instructor and the student is held to the highest standards. In order for students to receive a quality education, the instructional designer must develop lessons and courses that encompass the characteristics these men have brought to light. In the future, we expect that more research will be conducted regarding the learning process. Little research is known about how online students learn. What is known is that most instructional designers develop online courses to meet criteria from both theories. For us, the future instructional designers, we must strive to develop courses that are more than text driven. Our pedagogy should expand beyond the lecture style of the traditional classroom. Learning is an entity that knows no limits and it should be each educator’s goal to teach students and for students to truly learn. Thank you.
Armstrong, T. (2000). Multiple intelligences in the classroom. Alexandria, Va: Assoc. for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Chapman, A (2008). Kolb's learning styles, experiential learning theory, Kolb's learning styles inventory and diagram. Retrieved January 23, 2009, from http://www.businessballs.com/ kolblearningstyles.htm Clark, D. (2000). Kolb’s Learning Styles. Retrieved on January 24, 2009 from http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/history/kolb.html Gallagher, B.J. (2003). Multiple Intelligences and Online Instructional Design. Retrieved January 23, 2009 from www2.mcdaniel.edu/its/otl/articles/gallagher_multiple_intelligenci es.doc Harvard Graduate School of Education (2009). Faculty profile. Retrieved January 22, 2009 from http://www.gse.harvard.edu/faculty_research/profiles/profile.shtm l?vperson_id=316
Kearsley, G (n.d.). Multiple Intelligences (H. Gardner). Retrieved January 22, 2009, from http://tip.psychology.org/gardner.html Kolb, D. A. (2007). The Kolb learning style inventory. Boston, Mass: Hay Resources Direct. Retrieved January 21, 2009 from http://www.haygroup.com/tl/Downloads/LSI_Technical_Manual Pijl-Zieber, E.M. (n.d.) Kolb's Learning Styles. Retrieved January 25, 2009 from The University of Lethbridge web site at http://people.uleth.ca/~em.pijlzieber/ KolbLearningStyles.htm Polhemus, L., Swan, K., Dancha, M., & Assis, A. (2005) A Method for Describing Learner Interaction with Content. Retrieved January 23, 2009 from http://www.rcetj.org/?type=art&id=3523& Project Zero (2009). Howard Gardner. Retrieved January 22, 2009, from http://pzweb.harvard.edu/PIs/HG.htm Smith, M. (1996). David A. Kolb on Experiential Learning. Retrieved on January 24, 2009 from http://www.infed.org/biblio/b-explrn.htm
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