Concepts Typology of explicitation (Klaudy) Obligatory ~ due to language system Optional ~ to preserve “naturalness“ Pragmatic ~ bridging the cultural gap Translation-inherent ~ inherent to the translation process
Concepts Explicitation profile = a set of characteristics describing the translator’s behaviour in terms of explicitation with respect to a certain text (/translation in general?)
Material parallel corpus of literary texts – novels by different translators
Objectives To l ink patterns of explicitation choices ~ the translator’s style with respect to a specific literary text the translator’s style in general the stage of the translator’s career etc.
Characteristics of explicitation behaviour shared by different translators? Individual characteristics of explicitation behaviour? In/dependence of explicitation profile of/on a particular text? Stability of explicitation profile over time? “Prototypical“ expl. profiles?
Sampling frame Shortlist Inclusion criteria - contemporary translations (1945-) - contemporary originals (1940-) - novels – not historical, not non-fiction, not detective fiction, not experimental not detective fiction, not experimental
Final criterion: maximum span of time maximum number of relevant translations
Halliday: language as social semiotic meaning potential → instantialization „polyphony“
Systemic functional linguistics Ideational function the „observer function“ the clause as a figure in the flow of events
Systemic functional linguistics Interpersonal function the „intruder function“ the clause as a move in dialogic interaction
Systemic functional linguistics Textual function meaning as texture the clause as a message in the flow of information the clause as a message in the flow of information
Pilot study - material 3 sections of 5,000 words each (parallel text) Section 1 – opening of the novel Section 2 Section 3
Experiential E/IExperiential E/I Logical E/ILogical E/I Interpersonal E/IInterpersonal E/I Textual E/ITextual E/I Narrator level of discourseNarrator level of discourse Characters’ level of discourseCharacters’ level of discourse
Results - general E rate 50 / 5,000 words 1 occurrence / 100 words fairly stable rates
Results – translator-specific Translator 1 (Nenadál) E >I (E rate 3 times higher) E: more varied EXP-N, IP-CH I: fairly stable EXP-N Translator 2 (Přidal) E ~ I E: more varied highly variable I: fairly stable EXP-N
Results – translator-specific Translator 1 (Nenadál) Explicitation preferred over implicitation Avoidance of repetitions „Summarizing“ Translator 2 (Přidal) Flexible management of meaning potential Repetitions: ? E/I compensation
Other results Problematic cases of explicitation generalizing vs. specificity pragmatic explicitation → refining the definitions?
? Klaudy and Károly, 2003: A SL unit of a more general meaning is replaced by a TL unit of a more special meaning → EXPLICITATION
? E: “No one can figure out how she can stand being married to Howard.“ Cz*: “No one can figure out how she can stand being married to that kind of man.“
? E: „terminal One at Heathrow“ Cz*: „the main building of the London airport“
Other results Systemic differences between E and Cz “but“ in E and Cz
E: “They made their trip back to their home in the swamp after dark, and Farragut could not see this.“ Cz*: „They made their trip to their home in the swamp after dark, but Farragut could not see this.“