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Effective Precepting By: Jeffrey A. Sophinos, Pharm. D. Asst. Dean for Experiential Affairs Associate Professor of Pharmacy Practice.

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Presentation on theme: "Effective Precepting By: Jeffrey A. Sophinos, Pharm. D. Asst. Dean for Experiential Affairs Associate Professor of Pharmacy Practice."— Presentation transcript:

1 Effective Precepting By: Jeffrey A. Sophinos, Pharm. D. Asst. Dean for Experiential Affairs Associate Professor of Pharmacy Practice

2 Objectives By participating in this program, attendees will be able to: –List important elements of learning and teaching –Identify barriers to learning and avoiding those pitfalls –Describe the role of the preceptor within the rotation experience

3 Collaborative Effort/ Working Together Ever feel like you are caught in the middle? (look closely at the picture) Source: University of Arizona College of Pharmacy

4 Lecture (5%) Reading (10%) Audiovisual (20%) Demonstration (30%) Discussion Group (50%) Practice By Doing (75%) Teach Others / Immediate Use of Learning (90%) Bethel, Maine: National Training Laboratories (1960s) Average Retention Rate after 24 hours How we Learn

5 Characteristics of Learners Adult Learners Problem-centered Results-oriented Self-directed Often skeptical about new info Seek relevancy Accept responsibility for their own learning Youth Learners Subject-oriented Future-oriented Often depend on adults for direction More accepting Often train for unclear future Often dependent on others

6 How Do We Understand Learning Today? Humans actively create their knowledge Knowledge is not passively received Previous knowledge shapes new knowledge New knowledge shapes subsequent knowledge

7 Subsumption Theory “…The most important single factor influencing learning is what the learner already knows. Ascertain this and teach him accordingly” (D. Ausubel, 1968)

8 Experiential Learning Learning must be active and facilitated Involves more than just listening to a lecture, memorizing facts, and spitting out answers Talk, write, relate, and apply to daily life www. Accessed January 2011

9 Experiential Education Experiential Education: Direct experience within the learning environment Preceptor: Expert who gives practical experience and training to a learner

10 Preceptor Role Modeling/demonstration Setting goal(s) of desired outcome Providing guided practice with constructive feedback Allowing students opportunity to reflect on their learning

11 Learning is also Enhanced by: Stating information & giving examples Recognizing information in various contexts Seeing connections between facts or ideas Stating its opposite or converse Team-based/group activities Peer-instruction

12 Barriers to Learning Low self esteem Unwilling to ask for help Inattentiveness Poor study habits Anxiety Insecurity Lack of knowledge Low expectations of self Domestic, financial, or personal worries Physical and/or mental health issues Learning difficulties

13 Applying Adult Learning Strategies to the Rotation Experience Set expectations Motivate students Precepting practice: experience & modeling Evaluate & give feedback

14 Setting Expectations Make student feel welcomed Set realistic goals and objectives Make expectations specific Establish work schedule Ensure activity is indicated for each expectation Put in written form

15 Motivating Students Gain students’ attention/show interest in student Explain relevance Instill confidence Reinforce appropriate behavior and performance Be accessible Emphasize problem- solving approach Relate concepts in meaningful way Good attitude of preceptor Relate new concepts to prior learning of students Give constructive feedback

16 Precepting Practice Experience/Modeling Perform a behavior to be mastered by the student Explain the behavior-what was done & why Have the student perform the behavior Provide feedback Accessed January 2011

17 Evaluation and Feedback Evaluate student based on criteria established at beginning of rotation Advise student of his/her progress regularly Correct student constructively- emphasize praise for good work Conduct evaluation at end of rotation

18 What else? Correct mistakes quickly; decrease potential of repeating errors Find opportunities to extend the knowledge & experience of student Encourage reflection & integration Regular ‘debriefing’

19 Summary & Conclusions Reinforce active learning to enhance experience Avoid barriers to learning Set expectations Motivate students Model

20 Summary & Conclusions Correct errors Strive to increase knowledge & experience of student during rotation Reflection and integration Regular follow-up/debriefing

21 References Boesen, Kevin. Clinical Assistant Professor. “Practical Tips for Effective Precepting.” University of Arizona College of Pharmacy. Bunce, Diane M. “Teaching is More than Lecturing and Learning is More Than Memorizing.” Journal of Chemical Education. Vol 86 No. 6 June 2009. Chickering, Arthur. Gamson, Zelda F. “Seven Principles for Good Practice.” AAHE Bulletin 39:3-7, March 1987. Goffe, Bill. Several Resources on Teaching Methods that Increase Student Learning. Accessed August, 2009. McAllister, Dennis. Associate Professor of Pharmacy Practice. “Practical Tips for Effective Precepting.” Midwestern University College of Pharmacy-Glendale.

22 Accessed January 2011

23 ? ? ? ? Q u e s t i o n s ? ? ? ? ?

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