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Multiple Intelligences John Sandars Medical Education Unit

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1 Multiple Intelligences John Sandars Medical Education Unit

2 History Harvard Project on Human Potential - 1979 Questioned the notion of intelligence Howard Gardner (1983) - Frames of Mind “ We are not all the same, we do not all have the same kinds of minds, and education works most effectively for most individuals if...human differences are taken seriously.”

3 “Intelligence is a biopsychological potential to process information that can be activated in a cultural setting to solve problems or create products that are of value in a culture” (p34) Gardner H (1999) Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21 st century New York: Basic Books


5 Do MI exist? Child prodigies /autistic savants Neurology –specific brain areas Evolutionary / Developmental psychology

6 Applying M I theory Students who understand their own balance of multiple intelligences can: Better manage their own learning Learn to value their individual strengths Teachers who apply M.I. theory can: Provide more opportunities for students to cultivate their talents and improve their weaknesses Engage students with course material in ways that make sense to them

7 Multiple Intelligences Verbal-linguistic Logical ‑ mathematical Musical- rhythmic Bodily ‑ kinesthetic Visual-spatial Interpersonal Intrapersonal …………. Naturalist /Spiritual /Emotional

8 Multiple Intelligences Verbal -linguistic The ability to use language. These people can argue, persuade, entertain, or instruct through the spoken or written word.

9 Multiple Intelligences Logical ‑ mathematical The ability to see the intelligence of numbers and logic, ability to handle chains of reasoning and to recognise patterns and order. These people think in terms of cause and effect and can create and test hypotheses.

10 Multiple Intelligences Musical -rhythmic Sensitivity to pitch, melody, rhythm, and tone. These people can sing in tune, keep time to music and listen to musical selections with discernment

11 Multiple Intelligences Bodily ‑ kinesthetic The ability to use the body skillfully and handle objects adroitly. These are hands ‑ on people with good tactile sensitivity.

12 Multiple Intelligences Visual -spatial The ability to perceive the world accurately and to recreate or transform aspects of that world. These people often have acute sensitivity to visual details, can draw their ideas graphically, and can orient themselves easily in 3 ‑ D space

13 Multiple Intelligences Interpersonal The ability to understand people and relationships. These people can perceive and respond to moods, temperaments, intentions, and the desires of others.

14 Multiple Intelligences Intrapersonal The ability to access one's emotional life as a means of understanding oneself and others. These people can easily access their own feelings, discriminate among different emotional states, and use this to guide their own lives.

15 What is YOUR Multiple Intelligences profile? Questionnaires -

16 Teaching Through Multiple Intelligences Providing multiple pathways to learning!

17 Today’s learners Digital Connected Experiential Immediate Social > > Learning preferences Teams, peer-to-peer Engagement & experience Visual & kinesthetic

18 Multiple Intelligence (Learning preferences) Number of students scoring highest on each intelligence (n=178) Percentage of all students scoring highest on each intelligence (n=178) Linguistic2514.0 Logical – Mathematical 2011.2 Musical5028.1 Bodily- Kinaesthetic 9452.8 Spatial-Visual169.0 Interpersonal8547.8 Intrapersonal179.6 Second year medical students Sandars & Homer Autumn 2007

19 Learning with M I Devise some learning tasks that use the following intelligencies: –Verbal-linguistic –Logical ‑ mathematical –Musical- rhythmic –Bodily ‑ kinesthetic –Visual-spatial –Interpersonal –Intrapersonal

20 Teaching Through Multiple Intelligences Using technology to enhance learning

21 Learning with M I Devise some technology learning tasks that use the following intelligencies: –Verbal-linguistic –Logical ‑ mathematical –Musical- rhythmic –Bodily ‑ kinesthetic –Visual-spatial –Interpersonal –Intrapersonal

22 How can you use M I ? Verbal-linguistic Discussion (class or small group) Debate (material covered in class) Writing Assignments (stories or essays) Blogs / Wikis Discussion Boards Instant Messaging (Asynchronous/ Synchronous)

23 How can you use M I ? Logical- mathematical Patterns (notice underlying patterns) Graphs (pictorial documentation of data) Experiments and Laboratories Projects Web quests

24 How can you use M I ? Musical-rhythmic Listening to Music (beginning or during class) Songs (relating to content that increases material retention) Composing (writing lyrics or music) Podcasts ( listen / create) Digital stories / You Tube projects (soundtrack)

25 How can you use M I ? Bodily-kinesthetic Role-Play (act out a situation) Construction (make something) Podcasts Digital stories Flickr /You Tube projects Action mazes

26 How can you use M I ? Visual-spatial Diagrams Concept Mapping (links learned material through a visual aide) Board/Card Games Visual Arts (drawing, painting, or collage) Digital stories Flickr / You Tube projects Action Mazes

27 How can you use M I ? Interpersonal Group Work Collaboration Projects Peer Tutoring Discussions Blogs/Wikis Web quests Podcasts Digital stories Flickr/You Tube proejects

28 How can you use M I ? Intrapersonal Journaling (reflection) Keeping records of activities, progress, and learning experiences Relate world issues to personal values Blogs /Wikis Podcasts Digital stories Flickr / You Tube projects

29 Curriculum Content Personalised Learning Teaching and Learning Strategies Assessment for Learning

30 Ninety-two students (60.9%) obtained grades A or B for the written reflective learning assessment BUT Statistically significant higher linguistic and interpersonal intelligence scores (independent t-tests; t=2.39, df=149, p=0.018, and t=2.49, df=149, p=0.014)

31 Advantages of creative assignments Creative assignments can engage students by using their multiple intelligences to enhance their understanding of the subject. New approaches to standard material can help prevent plagiarism.


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