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(Education Reconsidered) Roger Schank Chairman, Socratic Arts Corp Chairman, Engines for Education Professor Emeritus, Northwestern University.

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Presentation on theme: "(Education Reconsidered) Roger Schank Chairman, Socratic Arts Corp Chairman, Engines for Education Professor Emeritus, Northwestern University."— Presentation transcript:

1 (Education Reconsidered) Roger Schank Chairman, Socratic Arts Corp Chairman, Engines for Education Professor Emeritus, Northwestern University

2 Once upon a time there was great kingdom that was under constant threat from dragons…

3 The Dragons Were Fierce

4 The Dragons were a threat to children

5 The King asked scholars from the best universities to form a curriculum committee to design a curriculum to train dragon slayers

6 The committee consisted of… arts faculty from Columbia arts faculty from Columbia science faculty from Princeton science faculty from Princeton business faculty from Stanford business faculty from Stanford medical faculty from Johns Hopkins medical faculty from Johns Hopkins law faculty from Harvard law faculty from Harvard engineering faculty from MIT engineering faculty from MIT humanities faculty from Yale humanities faculty from Yale

7 They all had some important questions to contribute Arts: what do we know about how we have traditionally depicted dragons? Arts: what do we know about how we have traditionally depicted dragons? Science: what do we know about its habitat and mating rituals? Science: what do we know about its habitat and mating rituals? Business: Is there a sustainable business in dragon hunting? Business: Is there a sustainable business in dragon hunting? Medical: What is the physiology of the dragon? Medical: What is the physiology of the dragon? Law: Do dragons have rights? Might there be lawsuits? Law: Do dragons have rights? Might there be lawsuits? Engineering: Will we need to build roads and bridges or design new weapons? Engineering: Will we need to build roads and bridges or design new weapons? Humanities: How is dragonese related to other known languages? Humanities: How is dragonese related to other known languages?

8 The New Curriculum MCDB 060a, Topics in Reproductive Biology of Dragons ENGL 342b, Mythology and Community in Eighteenth-Century Dragon\ Literature. ENAS 445a, Environmental Risk Assessment ENAS 194b, Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations with Applications. HIST 234b, Epidemics and Society in the West caused by Dragons since PHYS 461b, Relativity, Astrophysics, Cosmology, and Dragons. PHIL 427b, Vagueness and the Sorites Paradox. PSYC 149b, Dragon Communication and Human Language. PSYC 302b, How the Dragon’s Brain Works.

9 Second Year Dragon Rights Workshop Dragon Rights Workshop Intro to Negotiations Intro to Negotiations Business Ethics and Corporate Responsibility in Dragon Hunting Business Ethics and Corporate Responsibility in Dragon Hunting Contagious: How Dragon-Related Products, Ideas and Behaviors Can Catch On Contagious: How Dragon-Related Products, Ideas and Behaviors Can Catch On Dragons and Globalization Cost Benefit Analysis of Slaying Dragons Mathematical Modeling and Its Application in Financing Dragon Expeditions Urban Public Policy and Private Economic Development

10 Two Years Later: there were 25 new graduates (most with honors) So, they went out to slay dragons

11 Three of them formed a team but... They had not learned how to finance their expedition, and so they could find no funding They decided slaying dragons was not lucrative and all went into another line of work

12 Six of the graduates formed another team... Six of the graduates formed another team... They couldn’t get along with each other One member was maimed when his gun misfired Two others got into a violent argument about strategy The rest ran away and were never heard from again

13 The remaining graduates were more successful They formed three teams and went to find the dragon

14 Team One... Got financing Got along well with each other Agreed on strategy Procured the proper weapons and supplies Proceeded to search for the dragon...

15 But, they never could find a dragon to slay So, they formed a company to train dragon slayers [

16 The second team encountered the dragon... They tried to reason with the dragon but only one graduate could remember how to speak Dragonese He had failed the negotiation course He really annoyed the dragon

17 The dragon ate all four members of the team for lunch (picture omitted for reasons of taste)

18 The third team found the dragon and engaged it in battle But they had never fought a dragon before It was faster than they expected Its flame was hotter than they expected Their plan of attack was not well coordinated

19 End of the Dragon quest One team member was chased off a cliff A second was melted by the dragon A third ran away When the dragon calmed down, the remainder of the team negotiated a deal

20 They are now doing Public Relations for the Dragon They used what they learned in negotiation class And what they learned in art class And what they learned in business classes

21 “ Why are you teaching subjects?” said the King

22

23 Harvard in 1892 elementary studies English Greek Latin German French Ancient History Modern History Algebra Plane Geometry Physical Science (Descriptive) Physical Science (Experimental) advanced studies : Greek Latin Greek Composition Latin Composition German French Logarithms and Trigonometry Solid Geometry Analytic Geometry Mechanics or Advanced Algebra Physics Chemistry

24 What is wrong with subjects? The subjects are determined by academics The subjects are determined by academics The subjects reflect the research interests of the faculty The subjects reflect the research interests of the faculty The subjects do not connect to each other The subjects do not connect to each other Students choose them for the wrong reasons Students choose them for the wrong reasons You can’t remember what you learned in them You can’t remember what you learned in them They tend to not be experiential They tend to not be experiential They are often about preparing for exams They are often about preparing for exams Requirements are set by the faculty to make sure that people attend their courses Requirements are set by the faculty to make sure that people attend their courses

25 Why do students put up with this? They get certification They get certification They get beer and circus They get beer and circus They don’t have to work too hard They don’t have to work too hard They figure they can deal with the “real world” later on They figure they can deal with the “real world” later on They see this as a kind of summer camp They see this as a kind of summer camp Daddy pays for it Daddy pays for it

26 “And why do we even have courses?” asked the King

27 Why do we have courses? Professors only know their own subjects Professors only know their own subjects They can teach three hours a week and then go back to their real work They can teach three hours a week and then go back to their real work The real goal of a professor is to train researchers The real goal of a professor is to train researchers Students have lots of free time if they are only in class 12 hours a week Students have lots of free time if they are only in class 12 hours a week

28 “And why do we have classrooms?” said the King

29 Why do we have classrooms? 1850: Only one teacher in the town 1850: Only one teacher in the town 1950: Only way to keep education costs down 1950: Only way to keep education costs down 2010: Because we have always done it that way 2010: Because we have always done it that way

30 1916 – John Dewey The notion that some subjects and methods and that acquaintance with certain facts and truths possess educational value in and of themselves is the reason why traditional education reduced the material of education so largely to a diet of predigested materials. The notion that some subjects and methods and that acquaintance with certain facts and truths possess educational value in and of themselves is the reason why traditional education reduced the material of education so largely to a diet of predigested materials.

31 There are two types of education... One should teach us how to make a living, And the other how to live. --John Adams

32 Plato According to my view, any one who would be good at anything must practice that thing from his youth upwards, for example, he who is to be a good builder, should play at building children's houses; he who is to be a good husbandman, at tilling the ground; and those who have the care of their education should provide them when young with mimic tools. According to my view, any one who would be good at anything must practice that thing from his youth upwards, for example, he who is to be a good builder, should play at building children's houses; he who is to be a good husbandman, at tilling the ground; and those who have the care of their education should provide them when young with mimic tools.

33 It’s been like this for a while now I'm sure the reason such young nitwits are produced in our schools is because they have no contact with anything of any use in everyday life. I'm sure the reason such young nitwits are produced in our schools is because they have no contact with anything of any use in everyday life. Petronius (d. circa 66 CE) The Satyricon. Petronius (d. circa 66 CE) The Satyricon.

34 “And why do we do standardized testing? asked the King

35

36 “Even the DMV has two tests” said the King

37 “Look what we are producing” said the King

38 “What are our graduates prepared to do?” asked the King

39 What was this man prepared to do? Fall Term1987 Natural Language &Computer Introduction – Ethics Computers and Society Intermediate Spanish 1 Spring Term 1988 Physc Bases for Biology Intro/Artificial Intelligence Logic Intermediate Spanish 2 Literary Expression American History Calculus Funct 1 variable General Physics Fall Term 1988 Natural Language Processing Moral Responsibility Introduction to Psychology Cognition and the Brain Spring Term 1989 Knowledge & Understanding Tchngs/Symbolic Programming Special Projects Cognitive Process of the Brain Political Psychology Fall Term (1989) Language Culture & Society Intro History of Art Personhood&Persnl Dev Esthetics Naturalized Cultr&Devlpmt of Thought Spring Term 1990 Science & Social Weapon Prspectvs Uncnscs Mnt Prc Directed Reading-Psyc1 Directed Research Organizational Disasters Fall Term 1990 Senior Project Science and Literature Directed Research Social Change & the Future Spring Term 1991 Computers & Education Senior Project Tutorial Directed Research

40 What was this woman prepared to do? Fall Term 1987 English EngPoetChaucer-Eloiot1 French Intrmdt&Advanced French1 PolScie 116a Intro Comparatv Politics Psychi 110a-2 Introductn to Psychology Spring Term 1988 Eng&AS 110bPrspecvs on Technology English EngPoetsChaucer-Elliot2 French Intrmdt&AdvancedFrench2 Musci 232bMozart Relst 197bRelgn/AmerSoc, Fall Term 1988 Archtr 150aIntro to Architecture I English 192aEngl Renaissance Poetry French 138-7Advnced Language Prctcel Philos 116aHistory Ancient Philosophy Spring Term 1989 English 301b20thC British Novel French 138-1Advanced Language Prctce 2 HsArt 115bIntro/Rnssance-Present HsArt 249bArtArcItlyFrnc Fall Term 1989 CptSci 110a Elements of Computing English 170a Chaucer English 254a English Romantic Novel English 307a Black Women&Thir Ficnts Soclgy 117a Ineqlty&OprtuntyAmerSoc Yale In London Spring Term 1990 Britst 216b Shkspr&RnssncEnglshDrm BritSt 371b British Painting in 1SC BritSt 468b Critics Colonial Policy BritSt 470b Britain in S Africa Fall Term 1990 Anthro 254 JapaneseSociety&Culture English 235a The Age of Johnson English 265a The Victorian Novel English 281a 19 th C Amrlit, History 142a NAmericn Envrnmntl History Spring Term 1991 English 309b V Woolf Tests & Contexts HsArt 299b Modern Architecture English 342b Problems Cultrl Criticism English 447b Modern American Drama

41 In 2008… Jonathan L. Zittrain (born 1969) is an American professor of Internet law at the Oxford Internet Institute of the University of Oxford; co-founder, visiting professor and researcher at the Berkman Center for Internet & Society of Harvard University; visiting professor at the New York University School of Law; author, most recently, of The Future of the Internet and How to Stop It; and co-editor of the book Access Denied. Jonathan L. Zittrain (born 1969) is an American professor of Internet law at the Oxford Internet Institute of the University of Oxford; co-founder, visiting professor and researcher at the Berkman Center for Internet & Society of Harvard University; visiting professor at the New York University School of Law; author, most recently, of The Future of the Internet and How to Stop It; and co-editor of the book Access Denied.American Internet lawOxford Internet InstituteUniversity of Oxford Berkman Center for Internet & SocietyHarvard UniversityNew York University School of LawAmerican Internet lawOxford Internet InstituteUniversity of Oxford Berkman Center for Internet & SocietyHarvard UniversityNew York University School of Law (from Wikipedia) (from Wikipedia) I spent several years as a legal assistant in New York, D.C. and San Francisco; worked briefly as a client services coordinator for a legal staffing firm; and most recently worked as a copy editor for CNET News.com before taking time off to have kids. I am currently a stay- at-home parent but plan to return to editing (at least part-time) when my younger child is 6 or so.

42 “And why is teaching done in this awful way?” asked the King

43 What do we teach?

44 Why do we make teachers into the ultimate judge of their student’s success? Why do we make teachers into the ultimate judge of their student’s success?

45 Why do we teach theory first and practice second (if at all)? Why do we teach theory first and practice second (if at all)?

46 Why do we come up with lists of knowledge that every student must know?

47 Why do we teach something without explaining the use of learning it? Why do we teach something without explaining the use of learning it?

48 Why do we load students with homework?

49 Why do rarely teach students things they actually may need to know after they leave school?

50 Why do we make “pleasing the teacher” the goal of the student?

51 “Who is profiting from the testing and standardization obsessions?” asked the King

52 Just a few of them… ETS – 1 Billion in revenues ETS – 1 Billion in revenues McGraw Hill – 4 billion McGraw Hill – 4 billion Houghton-Mifflin Houghton-Mifflin Washington Post – 2.6 billion Washington Post – 2.6 billion

53 Albert Einstein "One had to cram all this stuff into one's mind for the examinations, whether one liked it or not. This coercion had such a deterring effect on me that, after I had passed the final examination, I found the consideration of any scientific problems distasteful to me for an entire year." "One had to cram all this stuff into one's mind for the examinations, whether one liked it or not. This coercion had such a deterring effect on me that, after I had passed the final examination, I found the consideration of any scientific problems distasteful to me for an entire year."

54 “ Aren’t there thinking skills you should be teaching?” asked the King

55 “ What cognitive processes underlie thinking and learning?” asked the King “ What cognitive processes underlie thinking and learning?” asked the King

56 The main Cognitive Processes 1. Prediction 1. Prediction 2. Judgment 2. Judgment 3. Modeling 3. Modeling 4. Experimentation 4. Experimentation 5. Describing 5. Describing 6. Managing 6. Managing 7. Step by Step 7. Step by Step 8. Artistry 8. Artistry 9. Values 9. Values 10. Diagnosis 11. Planning 12. Causation 13. Influence 14. Teamwork 15. Negotiation 16. Goal Conflict

57 Prediction

58 Judgment

59 Modeling

60 Diagnosis Diagnosis

61 Planning

62 Causation

63 Teamwork

64 Goal Conflict

65 “Why doesn’t the faculty want to teach thinking skills?” asked the King

66 To what extent do you think the faculty actually cares about the answer to this question?

67 Concerns of the Yale faculty: Getting tenure Getting tenure Getting published Getting published Becoming important in one’s field Becoming important in one’s field Making extra money by consulting Making extra money by consulting Being invited to give talks at meetings and universities Being invited to give talks at meetings and universities Being respected by one’s colleagues and by the administration Being respected by one’s colleagues and by the administration

68 The Yale faculty’s concerns about teaching… They should be able to teach as little as possible They should be able to teach as little as possible They should be able to teach at convenient times They should be able to teach at convenient times They should get to teach advanced seminars that count against their teaching load They should get to teach advanced seminars that count against their teaching load They should not have to teach large introductory courses They should not have to teach large introductory courses They should be able to get a semester off from teaching whenever possible They should be able to get a semester off from teaching whenever possible

69 What do professors teach?

70 Important professors teach anything they want

71 “And why are you teaching by talking?” asked the King

72

73 “Why haven’t your provided students with experiences?” asked the King

74 Immanuel Kant That all our knowledge begins with experience there can be no doubt....no knowledge of ours is antecedent to experience, but begins with it. That all our knowledge begins with experience there can be no doubt....no knowledge of ours is antecedent to experience, but begins with it.

75 All there is to know about learning on one slide You have a goal (a real thing that you want to happen) You have a goal (a real thing that you want to happen) You have an expectation that a plan of action will achieve it You have an expectation that a plan of action will achieve it The plan fails (this is what it means to have an experience) The plan fails (this is what it means to have an experience) You need an explanation of why your expectation was wrong (this is called thinking) You need an explanation of why your expectation was wrong (this is called thinking) You adapt an old explanation or someone provides you with a new one You adapt an old explanation or someone provides you with a new one You create a new expectation and try again You create a new expectation and try again

76 “ What about the role of stories in learning?” said the King

77 Every curriculum should tell a story. Every curriculum should tell a story. The story should be one that tells what the life of a dragon slayer is like (and it should involve lots of practice)

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82 Carnegie Mellon Silicon Valley

83 VISTA: replacing high school Health Sciences Health Sciences Computer Programming Computer Programming Business Business Communications Communications 4 of 100 (I hope) 4 of 100 (I hope)

84 Online experiential web-mentored MBA at LaSalle BES (Barcelona) Purpose: To provide a more practical education than a traditional MBA, teaching skills really used in business To provide a more practical education than a traditional MBA, teaching skills really used in business Geared toward those aiming to work: Geared toward those aiming to work: In a family business In a family business In an entry level job in a large corporation In an entry level job in a large corporation As an entrepreneur As an entrepreneur

85 Courses (Stories) in LaSalle MBA-Alternative Program Course 1: Cash Crisis Course 1: Cash Crisis Course 2: Going Online Course 2: Going Online Course 3: Marketing for a Product Launch Course 3: Marketing for a Product Launch Course 4: Supply Chain Reaction Course 4: Supply Chain Reaction Course 5: Investment Readiness Course 5: Investment Readiness Course 6: Ethical Governance and Change Management: The Story of a 21st Century Business (A Novel) Course 6: Ethical Governance and Change Management: The Story of a 21st Century Business (A Novel) Course 7: Sales and Project Management Course 7: Sales and Project Management

86 Cash Crisis Students learn how to MODEL two business processes in order to solve business problems. The processes are financial analysis and financial planning. They do this in a STEP-BY-STEP process, in order to create a conscious model in their minds. Within the model they need to deal with CAUSATION by examining how different past decisions are causing current financial problems. Putting the causes together and looking at the complex interrelationships between causes and effects enable them to DIAGNOSE the current situation, which they must DESCRIBE in an understandable way for a non-financial expert. Then, considering what the company plans to do in the future and using the financial planning process they PREDICT the financial consequences of the plan. Finally they correct the PLAN to have the right outcomes and PREDICT what they think would be a good final solution to the problem. They practice TEAMWORK and must INFLUENCE OTHERS and NEGOTIATE with team members. Students learn how to MODEL two business processes in order to solve business problems. The processes are financial analysis and financial planning. They do this in a STEP-BY-STEP process, in order to create a conscious model in their minds. Within the model they need to deal with CAUSATION by examining how different past decisions are causing current financial problems. Putting the causes together and looking at the complex interrelationships between causes and effects enable them to DIAGNOSE the current situation, which they must DESCRIBE in an understandable way for a non-financial expert. Then, considering what the company plans to do in the future and using the financial planning process they PREDICT the financial consequences of the plan. Finally they correct the PLAN to have the right outcomes and PREDICT what they think would be a good final solution to the problem. They practice TEAMWORK and must INFLUENCE OTHERS and NEGOTIATE with team members. They also practice how to use tools such as excel sheets and learn the STEP-By STEP processes contained in them. They also practice how to use tools such as excel sheets and learn the STEP-By STEP processes contained in them.

87 Going Online In this course students mainly design a new web site. To design anything one must PLAN what one wants to do and MODEL the behavior of potential users. They PLAN the sequence of activities the user will be able of doing. They PREDICT the potential choices the user will have and define each outcome for each choice. They MODEL the whole process consciously. They DESCRIBE the model and/or pieces of the model using PowerPoint presentations and specific tools such as “persona” profiles or lists of requirements. They make JUDGEMENTS based on evidence when comparing the two proposals that consultants have submitted. They EXPERIMENT when performing the user test and make design decision based on the user test conclusions. In this course students mainly design a new web site. To design anything one must PLAN what one wants to do and MODEL the behavior of potential users. They PLAN the sequence of activities the user will be able of doing. They PREDICT the potential choices the user will have and define each outcome for each choice. They MODEL the whole process consciously. They DESCRIBE the model and/or pieces of the model using PowerPoint presentations and specific tools such as “persona” profiles or lists of requirements. They make JUDGEMENTS based on evidence when comparing the two proposals that consultants have submitted. They EXPERIMENT when performing the user test and make design decision based on the user test conclusions.

88 Reengineer a supply chain Students work with a complex business process, the supply chain, which encompasses up to 5 sub-processes. The main skills is again MODELING, students build a conscious model of the processes. They deal with CAUSATION when identifying root causes for the problems. They practice DESCRIBING when presenting reports and recommendations to the board and JUDGEMENT when evaluating based on information provided, the capacity of the company to undertake the supply chain full reengineering. They practice DIAGNOSIS when they are required to analyze root causes of problems and identify requirements to fix those problems. Students work with a complex business process, the supply chain, which encompasses up to 5 sub-processes. The main skills is again MODELING, students build a conscious model of the processes. They deal with CAUSATION when identifying root causes for the problems. They practice DESCRIBING when presenting reports and recommendations to the board and JUDGEMENT when evaluating based on information provided, the capacity of the company to undertake the supply chain full reengineering. They practice DIAGNOSIS when they are required to analyze root causes of problems and identify requirements to fix those problems.

89 teaching a cognitive process means… Providing an experience Providing an experience Enabling failure Enabling failure A discussion of that experience. A discussion of that experience. Helping students gradually acquire a case base Helping students gradually acquire a case base Progressing to more complex cases, and more nuanced and sophisticated discussions Progressing to more complex cases, and more nuanced and sophisticated discussions

90 “Instead of creating dragon scholars shouldn’t we focus on producing dragon slayers?” asked the King

91 “Let’s build a new system” said the King “Let’s build a new system” said the King

92 The old system vs. The new system Curricula chosen by interest Curricula chosen by interest Mentors always available as needed Mentors always available as needed Mentors can be anywhere Mentors can be anywhere Students may not see each other but they work in teams Students may not see each other but they work in teams Students evaluated by what various deliverable; time is not a factor Students evaluated by what various deliverable; time is not a factor The system is global The system is global Certification done by international associations Certification done by international associations Schools chosen by location Teacher available during class hours Teacher located near you Students sit in class together but do their work alone Students evaluated by tests and essays produced at certain times The system is local Certification done by schools

93 Who designs curricula? Any curriculum can be delivered worldwide to anyone in any language who is capable of doing the work Any curriculum can be delivered worldwide to anyone in any language who is capable of doing the work Available curricula are determined by actual needs Available curricula are determined by actual needs Curricula are designed by expert practitioners not by academics Curricula are designed by expert practitioners not by academics

94 In this global system… Students do not choose between universities or different schools Students do not choose between universities or different schools They choose curricula that interest them and that help them prepare for real life They choose curricula that interest them and that help them prepare for real life They choose mentors with whom they want to work They choose mentors with whom they want to work Many different curricula will be developed and offered worldwide Many different curricula will be developed and offered worldwide

95 We can do this in all arenas of education Masters degree programs Masters degree programs College programs College programs New kinds of high school programs New kinds of high school programs New kinds of non-stressful fun programs for smaller kids New kinds of non-stressful fun programs for smaller kids Corporate training Corporate training

96 Why am I doing this?

97


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