Presentation on theme: "Structuring a PhD Thesis"— Presentation transcript:
1 Structuring a PhD Thesis Ismail SaidSchool of Graduate StudiesUniversiti Teknologi Malaysia12 Jan 2015Examples were derived from Mazlina Mansor’s Thesis (2012)
2 What is PhD Research?Doing PhD study is putting yourself into a world of investigating new ideas and knowledge of a subject. And, to attain the new knowledge, you always link your research field with others. (Theoretical framework)Doing a PhD research may not solving a dubious problem that is it is not a rocket science. Neither, it is a breakthrough. It may investigate an obvious inquiry.
3 Novelty and Originality of a PhD Thesis Carrying out an empirical work that has not been done beforeMaking a synthesis that has not been made beforeMaking a new interpretation of known materialsBringing new evidence to bear on old useBeing cross-disciplinary and using different methodologiesAdding new knowledge to the current pool of knowledge
4 Content Abstract Abstracts (ab=out, trahere=pull; “to pull out”) An abstract is the prelude of your thesis. It is usually read first and may be only part read. Therefore, make it accurate, specific, objective, and self-contained (i.e., it makes sense alone without references to the main text). WRITE IT AT THE END.It must concisely describe the experimental question, the general methods and the major findings and implications of the experimentsAn example:Analyzing sunlight duration and optimum shading using a sky mapA method of predicting the sunlight duration on windows in a densely packed building environment is presented.
5 Content Abstract Content 1. Intent or objective of paper; Problem statement; Issue2. Method of study3. Results or Findings4. Conclusion5. ImplicationHow many words? Generally, words.
6 Content Chapter 1 Introduction Research Background Statements of Problem and Research GapResearch Aim and ObjectivesResearch AssumptionsResearch UnderpinningsSignificances of ResearchOutline of Research MethodologyOutline of Thesis
7 STATEMENTS OF PROBLEMBuilt environment is a harmful impediment to biophilic needs of urban residentsfrom sedentary behaviour, high level of built-up urban pressures, increase immersion in the artificial human-made environment. Hence, residents disengage from the urban natural environment.(2) Issues on planning of urban green infrastructureLack of availabilityLack of connectivityManagement practices – e.g. poor quality in development plan, low maintenance, lack of manpower, budget, expertise, interest, lack of awareness and civic mindedness and lack of monitoring.
8 RESEARCH GAPLack of empirical evidences in Malaysia that determine physical and psychological effects of urban green infrastructure network.Very few studies were found in landscape architecture and urban planning disciplines that explore which properties and attributes have the strongest positive effects, and what can be done to improve urban settings - contribute to the search for functional landscape designs beneficial to human well-being and sustainability.Thus, this exploratory study is designed as an extension to the existing body of knowledge found in Western and European studies and to fill the gap on study in Malaysian setting.
9 OBJECTIVES & R.QUESTIONS KEY RQ 1:What makes green infrastructure network in a town possible for the residents to physically and visually access it?SUBSIDIARY QUESTIONS:a)What are the types of green infrastructure that can be found in urban green environment?)How is the green infrastructure in Malaysian towns distributed? Does green infrastructure network exist in Taiping?)How do residents feel about the properties and attributes of green infrastructure which include diversity, naturalness, coherence and other additional attributes in the town?OBJECTIVE 1:To investigate the presence of diversity, naturalness, coherence and additional attributes that forms experiences of a green infrastructure network in a small town.OBJECTIVE 2:To identify uses and experiences that residents make of the green infrastructure and feelings that they have towards the properties and attributes.OBJECTIVE 3:To determine the effects of experiential contacts with the green infrastructure network, and the relationships to well-being of residents, physically, cognitively and socially.SUBSIDIARY QUESTION 2):How do the properties and attributes of green infrastructure network affect physical, cognitive and social experience and well-being of the residents?How do the residents benefits from their experiences in the green infrastructure?Is there a significant difference of the effects of visiting different green infrastructure on well being of the residents?How does green infrastructure network affect physical experience and well-being of the residents?What are the residents’ feelings towards the attributes of the green infrastructure?How does it affect their cognitive experience and performance?Do the residents develop a sense of attachment (cognitive effects) to the green spaces?How does green infrastructure affect residents’ social experience and well-being?Which attributes of the green infrastructure have a strong influence on physical, cognitive and social well-being of the residents?KEY RQ2:How do properties and attributes of the green infrastructure assist the residents’ experiential contacts with nature and how do they affect their well-being?SUBSIDIARY QUESTION I):How does the green infrastructure network contribute to urban residents’ experiences?Do the majority of the residents utilise green infrastructure as their everyday setting?What are the opportunities it offers to the residents?What are the levels of the residents’ familiarity of the green infrastructure?HYPOTHESIS:Ho: Physical, cognitive and social well-being of the residents is independent to the properties and attributes of the green infrastructure.Hı:Physical, cognitive and social well-being of the residents is dependent on properties and attributes of green infrastructure.OBJECTIVE 4:To propose a conceptual model eliciting the interrelationships of residents’ experiential contacts with the green infrastructure network to physical, cognitive and social well-being.
10 Content Chapter 2: Literature Review Review of past studies and relationship of a study to another, and then relationship of the reviewed studies to yoursDefining your research underpinnings or conceptual frameworkFurther justification of your research gapSituating your research into the framework
11 EXPERIENTIAL CONTACTS OF RESIDENTS WITH GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK IN TAIPING Chapter Literature Review 1GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK AND EXPERIENTIAL CONTACTS WITH ITS PROPERTIES AND ATTRIBUTESIntroductionUrban Green InfrastructureGreen Infrastructure NetworkConceptual Frameworks on Green InfrastructureNetwork and Well-beingTypes of Green Infrastructure Network in Malaysian TownsProperties and Attributes of Green InfrastructureNetworkConclusion
12 EXPERIENTIAL CONTACTS WITH GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE AND WELL-BEING EXPERIENTIAL CONTACTS OF RESIDENTS WITH GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK IN TAIPING Chapter Literature Review 2EXPERIENTIAL CONTACTS WITH GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE AND WELL-BEINGIntroductionPerceptual Theories on Humans’ Relationships with Environment consisting of Green InfrastructureEffects of Experiential Contacts with Green InfrastructureConceptual Framework Linking Residents’Experiential Contacts with Green InfrastructureConclusion
13 UNDERPINNINGS Evolution-based Theory PERCEPTUAL THEORIES Habitat specificSavanna, Forest and Grassland-woodland Hypotheses.Non-habitat specificProspect-refuge Theory (Appleton, 1975)Landscape Preference Theory (Kaplan and Kaplan, 1982, 1989)Biophilia Hypothesis (Wilson, 1984; Kellert and Wilson, 1993)“People have a more general innate bond with nature. Respond of people is in favour of natural settings than that of urban or man-made.”“The innately emotional affiliation is a fundamental component of building and sustaining good health”PERCEPTUALTHEORIESb) Cultural Preference TheoryTopophilia (Tuan, 1974)“Human-nature relationships are predominantly dependent on the cultural background and personal attributes e.g. gender, occupation, hobbies, academic background.”This study support mixture of these theories – responses to green infrastructure are innate as well as challenged and changed by cultural influences and experiences.2) FRAMEWORKS that support the perceptual theories derived from urban ecosystem, conservation biology, landscape ecology, urban design, environmental planning and landscape architecture disciplines i.e. Tzoulas et al., 2007; Pickett & Cardenasso, 2008.
14 INTERRELATIONSHIPS OF THE PARAMETERS PHYSICAL DETERMINANTSEXPERIENTIAL CONTACTSviewing in & out, being in & active engagements: kinetic-physical, leisure & social activitiesPERCEPTUAL DETERMINANTSPerception; familiarity, preferenceThe interaction between human behaviour and the non-human environment (the green infrastructure network) as a two way processPROPERTIES AND ATTRIBUTES:Diversity, naturalness, coherence & additional attributes (cleanliness, maintenance, facilities)Independent parameters(PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS)Dependent parameters(from psychophysical procedures)Parameters that affect the link between cause and outcome parametersPhysical well-beingFeeling active; bodily healthy; mobilityCognitive well-beingForget worries, relief stress & clear mind from distractions comfortable, relax and calm privacy; safe; preference; satisfaction; attachmentSocial well-beingInteractions with neighbours & other residents; participate; friendly and satisfied
15 Content Chapter 3: Research Methodology Explanation of your research design or approach, defining your parameters, site background information, methods of data collection, methods of data analysis, verifying your study reliability and validity, and conclusion. For research on people-place relationship, it is important to explain the approach of your study either positivism, post-positivism, constructivism, or pragmatism.
16 Methodological Approaches in the Studies of Human-Environment EXPERIENTIAL CONTACTS OF RESIDENTS WITH GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK IN TAIPING Chapter 3: Research MethodologyIntroductionMethodological Approaches in the Studies ofHuman-EnvironmentResearch QuestionsResearch DesignTriangulations of the Mixed-methods ApproachReliability and ValidityAnalyses of DataConclusion
17 THE STUDY SITE 10 main types of green infrastructure 6 types of green open space:Recreational green infrastructure (The Lake Gardens),Large open playfield, Public buildings and institutional grounds,Designed pocket spacesSmall incidental and loose-fit green spaces,Neighbourhood open spaces, home gardens, andExisting private lands and undeveloped lands.4 types of green network:Transport corridorsLinear green spaces (commercial shop houses and five-foot walkways)River corridorsLinear green spaces and reserves.
18 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY STUDY DESIGN STRATEGIES OF INQUIRY FINDINGS Review of literatureTheoretical frameworks & underpinningsExploratory & correlational study designStrategies of inquirynTechniquesSurveys335Self-administered questionnaire; quantitative closed-ended with open a few open-ended questions2) Semi-structured interview33Semi-structured questions3)Behavioural observation580-The Lake Gardens;334-Town centreUnobtrusive observations and mapping of activitiesPragmatism knowledge claimThe context that was tested-TaipingMixed-methods approachAnalysis of dataDescriptiveInferentialContent analysisTriangulationFINDINGS
19 Content Chapter 4: Results and Discussion You displayed your results in tables or figures. Sort your results according to your research objectives, research hypothesis or research questions.Each table or figure must be interpreted that is what is the meaning of a result.Interpretation is the findings that is answers for your research objectives. Relate your findings to those of past studies in three forms: AFFIRM, MODIFY or REJECT.Affirmation means your findings run parallel to the past ones.Modification means your findings are a slight different from those of the past studies that certain add new knowledge to the current pool of knowledge of your research subject.Rejection means your findings is total contrast to the past ones. You are creating a new concept or theory for the research subject.
20 Reliability Analyses of Constructed Parameters EXPERIENTIAL CONTACTS OF RESIDENTS WITH GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK IN TAIPING Chapter 4: Results and DiscussionIntroductionReliability Analyses of Constructed ParametersFactor Analysis of the Constructed ParametersCharacteristics of ResidentsUses and Familiarity of the Green InfrastructureExperiential Contacts with Properties and Attributes of the Green InfrastructureWell-being Effects from the Green InfrastructureNetworkConclusion
21 6 main FINDINGS Visits to green infrastructure (RO2 & RQ2) Residents regularly used the green infrastructure. The act of visiting or not visiting does not depend on residents’ characteristics.2) Familiarity (RO2 & RQ2)With at least 6 types of green infrastructure.Residents were more familiar with green open spaces than green network.3) Activities (RO2 & RQ2)Residents were actively engaged in at least 22 types of activities.4) Experience of green infrastructure’s attributes (RO1 & RQ1)Diversity, naturalness and coherence are presence in Taiping. E.g. The Lake Gardens has high diversity & naturalness, hills (naturalness), neighbourhood (proximity).The attributes shaped preferences5) Effects to well-being (RO3 & RQ2)Benefits - The experience fulfils nature and human interactions needs. Residents felt affiliated with the green infrastructure.Physical well-being – residents achieved at least 6 types of physical effects (active living, feeling bodily healthy, etc.).Cognitive well-being – at least 13 cognitive effects (emotional relief, comfort, relaxed, calmness, etc).Social well-being – at least 6 social effects (interactions, participation, satisfaction).
22 FINDINGS6) Relationships of attributes and well-being (RO3 & hypotheses)Diversity affects physical well-being the most.Naturalness affects cognitive well-being the most.Coherence affects cognitive and social well-being the most.Cause-effect relationship from green infrastructure
23 Content Chapter 5: Conclusion This is the pinnacle of your thesis; situating the novelty of your thesis. It is a generalization of a new knowledge.It displayed the new knowledge that you have discovered. Explanation should be simple that bringing together the findings of all objectives into a conclusive one.The conclusion only situated in your thesis.
24 EXPERIENTIAL CONTACTS OF RESIDENTS WITH GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK IN TAIPING Chapter 5: ConclusionIntroductionConclusion to the Findings1. Uses of the Green Infrastructure Network2. Green Infrastructure Network3. Experiential Contacts with Attributes of4. Green Infrastructure and Their Effects on Well-being5. Physical, Cognitive and Social Well-beingImplications and Recommendations for Planning ofGreen InfrastructureAreas for Future ResearchConclusion
25 FINDINGS A conceptual model (RO4) Viewing, being with the attributes and engaging in physical, leisure and social activities contribute to familiarity, frequent visits, preference, satisfaction and attachment that lead to well being.
26 IMPLICATIONS THEORETICAL and PRACTICAL The presence of these properties and attributes assists sequential experience. The green infrastructure is integrated, providing concentration nodes and vital channels of movement that fulfil their needs for nature and interaction.Green infrastructure network is essential amenity that produces healthy environment.Criteria – Green infrastructure must be reflected much more clearly in urban planning policies to ensure that towns are liveable and green spaces are attractive to urban residents.
27 Read Novels The Uncharted Path: The Autobiography of Lee Myung-Bak What is a life well lived?
28 Question and Answer Session Thank you Question and Answer Session Thank you. YOU WILL SEE A RAINBOW AFTER THE STORM HAS PASSED.