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MIS 2000 Class 12 Knowledge Processes & Knowledge Work Systems Updated Oct. 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "MIS 2000 Class 12 Knowledge Processes & Knowledge Work Systems Updated Oct. 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 MIS 2000 Class 12 Knowledge Processes & Knowledge Work Systems Updated Oct. 2013

2 Outline Knowledge worker Knowledge & Knowledge Kinds Knowledge Life Process Knowledge Works Systems (KWS) Organizational culture and knowledge (knowledge culture) Summary 2 of 13

3 Knowledge and Occupations Knowledge worker is a professional that intensely applies (uses) domain knowledge at work and/or generates it. In contrast, –clerk mostly processes data (collection, formatting entering in forms or IS, running IS) –manager mostly interprets documents (infers information from documents) Manipulate/ process data Interprets documents and analysis to draw information Apply knowledge on solving biz problem Produce biz documents Create analysis, research Clerk ManagerProfessional 3 of 13

4 Knowledge refers to understanding what something is, why something is, and how to do something: - What: concepts, concepts’ relationships, taxonomies - Know-how (procedures): How-to do something, analysis/synthesis, how to generate new knowledge - Why: understanding cause-effect relationships (special relationship) Knowledge Knowledge acquisition is incremental (what comes in layers, & why is learned with imperfect accuracy). Learner may start with know-how and understand what/why later. Knowledge is never complete, or 100% correct, can be incoherent and controversial (messy). 4 of 13 KNOWLEDGE CONCEPTS, RELATIONS PROCEDURES CAUSE- EFFECT is

5 Explicit Can be communicated Definitions, taxonomies, theories, procedures, cases Tacit Difficult to communicate Experiential, analysis & synthesis skills Mgt. goal to extract it Three Knowledge Taxonomies Source view:* Theoretical (science, theories) vs. Experiential knowledge (practical, personal, via doing) Communication view:** Economic view: Human Capital (in people) vs. Structural Capital (in things) * 5 of 13

6 Knowledge Life Process Knowledge life process refers to a sequence of activities from knowledge generation to discarding.* The process in an infinite loop. 6 of 13

7 Knowledge Work Systems (KWS) 7 of 13 SystemGenerateCodify & Store ShareUpdate Document Management System yes Communication Systemyes Case Based Reasoning System (CBRS) yes Expert System (ES)yes Artificial Neural Network System (ANNS) yes KWS in support to knowledge sub-processes: - Generate: KWS help people in creating knowledge - Codify: KWS codify or people do it - Store: classical role for KWS is to store representations of knowledge - Share: deployment of KWS for disseminating of knowledge - Update: modify based on what is newly learned

8 KWS: Document Management System Document Management System (DMS)* = Repository of documents that codify knowledge in some way. In typology of GSS, DMS is called File Sharing System. The simplest kind of KWS, consisting of multi-format storage and a searchable index.** Used in corporate learning centers, and by individuals and groups in their regular job. Examples: Lotus Notes (was one of first in the market), SharePoint, wikis, open source. open source. Technically: full text databases with retrieval tools (SharePoint), and functions for group-authoring (wikis). Content of documenting systems is shared among people authorized to access them (e.g., consulting firms). 8 of 13

9 Case-Based Reasoning (CBR): Represents knowledge as cases – descriptions of problems with solutions (like in law). Procedure of using CBR system involves user’s input of keywords and the system’s search for the best fit between the input and documents that may help in solving the user’s problem. New knowledge may also result from using CBR system.* CBS systems are used in help desks, conflict resolution, professional problem solving that cannot be reduced to if-then rules, instructional systems (teaching how to do something – procedural knowledge). KWS: Case-Based Reasoning System Case Base (descriptions of problems, prob. solving processes, and solutions Case Base (descriptions of problems, prob. solving processes, and solutions User Interface User Interface Index 9 of 13 Mhmmm… an interesting case, indeed!

10 KWS that codifies the expertise of people in the form of if-then rules. Benefit: Expert knowledge shared with non-experts. Used in account auditing, medical diagnosing, troubleshooting of machinery, health care (Medical underwriting system at Blue Cross), financial industry (CLUES system for loan underwriting), oil & mining User Interface Inference Engine Creates decision trees out of rules in K-Base and user’s input Knowledge Base If-then rules representing expert knowledge More on expert systems... Expert System 10 of 13

11 Artificial Neural Network (ANN) System ANN System simulates human brain’s cells (neurons) and connections Connection patterns get created, which allows ANN System to make some inferences. The inferences are represented in form of graphics, numerical figures, text, etc. This resembles human knowledge 11 of 13 ANN with 3 layers of “neurons” APPLE COMP- UTER FRUIT Hidden layer strengthens its connections with APPLE and COMPUTER and not between COMPUTER and FRUIT. APPLE COMP.

12 Organizational Culture and Knowledge It is important that cultural beliefs and behaviors facilitate activities included in the knowledge life process. Beliefs and behaviors related to knowledge at Accenture: o Beliefs & practices on generation & sharing of knowledge: Knowledge should be continually created through consulting practice and shared broadly. o Beliefs on role of knowledge in business: knowledge should contribute directly to profit objectives. o Assumptions about purpose KWS*: To enable storing and efficient access to knowledge content. 12 of 13

13 Knowledge Culture Knowledge Culture – organizational culture that systematically supports the entire knowledge management cycle. May not exist in every company or it can exist in various degrees. May be facilitated by teams. Important in knowledge creation and particularly sharing. Sharing via collaboration (between equals) and apprenticeship (master and student relationship). Examples: Accenture, 3M, Microsoft, Apple 13 of 13

14 Summary Knowledge worker is a professional that intensely applies/generates knowledge at work. Knowledge refers to understanding what something is, why something is, and how to do something. Develops gradually and is never perfect. Knowledge kinds: Theoretical & practical; explicit & implicit; memorized & materialized. Knowledge mgt. process is cyclical and includes generation, codifying/storing, sharing, utilizing, & updating/discarding. Knowledge works systems (KWS) studied are Artificial Neural Network, Document Management System, Expert System, & Case-Based Reasoning System. They support different phases of knowledge process (slide 7). Any company should pay attention to managing knowledge. Knowledge culture exists in a company that systematically supports entire knowledge management process (e.g., Accenture). 14 of 13

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