Presentation on theme: "Situated Learning and Assessment"— Presentation transcript:
1 Situated Learning and Assessment UCD College of Life SciencesTeaching and Learning Symposium 201018 Feb 2010Dr. Anne DrummondUCD School of Public Health, Physiotherapy and Population Science
2 Situated LearningLearning in which the learning environment is ‘situated’ in a particular contextApprenticeship (cognitive)Adult learningLearning should be always be regarded as situated in a local and social context, contrary to traditional theory of education where knowledge is considered free from any contextual influenceKnowledge and skills are learned in contexts that reflect how knowledge is obtained and applied in everyday situationsCreating meaning from the activities of daily living
3 Situated Learning Theory Emerged in late 1980s-1990sBrown, Collins and Duguid (1989)Lave and Wenger (1991)Builds on other theoriesBandura’s social learning theory (modelling)Vygotsky’s constructivism (scaffolding and fading)Dewey, Knowles, KolbHas characteristics ofPrinciples of adult education (andragogy)Problem-based learningExperiential learning
4 Situated Learning apparently… Emphasises higher order thinking rather than the acquisition of factsEncourages reflection on learningFocuses on application rather than retentionPlaces learners ‘in the experience’Enhances employability of graduatesLearning occurs through dialogue with others in a community of practice
5 Terminology Communities of practice Legitimate peripheral participationLegitimate: member of the community of practicePeripheral: learners start at the edge and can move inwardsParticipation: learning through doing
6 Situated learning applications SchoolsMathematics, language, scienceSocial settingsCommunity committees, sports, leisureVocational and educational settingsApprenticeship, mentoring, coachingMaster-apprentice relationshipsWork and professional settingsNew positionProfessional bodiesCore characteristic: active participation of students in a real-world or near-real world context for the purpose of learning
7 JPF, Practitioner and Student Just Plain Folk (JPF)StudentsPractitionersReasoning withCausal storiesLawsCausal modelsActing onSituationsSymbolsConceptual situationsResolvingEmergent problems and dilemmasWell-defined problemsIll-defined problemsProducingNegotiable meaning and socially constructed understandingFixed meaning and immutable concepts(Brown, Collins and Duguid, 1989, p. 35)
8 Situated learning in the literature: Experience of different disciplines Educational (higher education) literature on situated learning tends toBe descriptive or discursiveFocus on professional education domainsSamplesManagement education (instructional design project for corporate clients)Medicine (PGME / CPD situated in the workplace)Nursing (situated in practice placements)Engineering (situating a communications course within the curriculum)OSH (situating SH&E training within the workplace)More recently:instructional design; computers providing an alternative to the real-life setting; SL as a basis for web-based e-learning
9 Instructional design in SL: 9 critical characteristics “Provide authentic context that reflects the way the knowledge will be used in real-life;Provide authentic activities;Provide access to expert performances and the modelling of processes;Provide multiple roles and perspectives;Support collaborative construction of knowledge;Provide coaching and scaffolding at critical times;Promote reflection to enable abstractions to be formed;Promote articulation to enable tacit knowledge to be made explicit;Provide for integrated assessment of learning within the tasks.”(Herrington and Oliver, 2000)
10 Our experience of Situated Learning in OSH ChallengesAdult professional CPE programmesActual work situation V placement or internshipNo work-based instructionNo work-based supervision or mentoringRecognising experiential learning (+ need to capture)Modularisation provided opportunity to review Cert, HDip and BSc programmesDecided to gain/assess evidence of ‘experiential’ learning through assessmentRealised that situated learning was taking place
11 Examples of work-based assessments in OSH Level 1: Report for manager (versus an essay)OR Article for Chamber of Commerce newsletterLevel 1: Basic risk assessment of own workplaceLevel 3: Risk assessments / management reports in a variety of domains and contexts provide a scaffold and ultimately lead students, with reducing support, to their:Level 3: Safety Statement projectLevel 2: Professional portfoliosLevel 3: Ergonomic assessmentLevel 3: SWOT analysesLevel 3: Proposing a model for practice
12 Student feedback on work-based assessment Level 1 Very Helpfulto myLearning%Helpfulto my learningNeitherhelpful norUnhelpfulVery UnhelpfulModuleandYear6219.462.916.11.6SHWW 1001016932.9188.8.131.52SHWW 100202008-9101514342CertSHWprogramme2007-8In terms of helpfulness to learning, please indicate the extent to which you found the following components helpful or unhelpful: Preparing assignments
13 Student feedback on work-based assessment Level 3 Strongly agree %Agree%Neitheragree nor Disagree %DisagreeStrongly DisagreeModule and Year102575SHWW 300701844505.6SHWW 301702008-9154033.36.720SHWW 30180666.733SHWW 3005052.631.610.55.3SHWW 300601353.838.57.72007-827.844.411.1SHWW 30160‘The continuous assessment helped me to apply learning in the context of the workplace’
14 Feedback on work-based assessment BSc Graduate Evaluation (2002-2009) 60% responseN =Very helpfulto mylearning%Helpfulto my learningNeitherhelpful norunhelpfulUnhelpfulVery unhelpfulWork-based assignments associated with modules513553102Work-based research project55396Helpfulness to Learning: work-based assignments associated with modulesHelpfulness to Learning: work-based research project61% of employers encouraged graduates to apply learning at work, while doing BSc;36% of employers were neutral, but did not discourage.
15 Student feedback on work-based assessment Assignments - putting learning into work settingWhat was good about this module?The use of real life experiences (workplaces) was a plusPractical AssignmentsContinuous assessment is strongest teaching feature of moduleI found the assignments very helpful, I learnt a lot
16 PROs … of the OSH experience TheoreticalPromotes deep learningSocial and professional acceptancePerceived value to learnersIn practiceIncreased student engagementReduction in ‘regurgitated’ contentPositive student evaluationsDesigns out plagiarism
17 …and CONs of the OSH experience Theoretical[Such] socialisation may not embody best practiceHard to implement in the classroomMay not always be a ‘master’ involvedDebate over transferabilityIn practiceMore work for graders (but probably more interesting)Difficult to attribute, i.e. to separate impact of situated learning from effects of modularisation or introduction of continuous assessment
18 Opportunities Situated Learning …. IS NOT … an educational form, pedagogical strategy or teaching techniqueIS …a way of understanding learningShould not be ignored by educationalistsProvides an opportunity to pay attention to different learning climatesIn some domains it is important to recognise the social and professional acceptance in communities of practice as part of the learning experienceImportant to look at LEARNING (not teaching) as the contextualised or situated experience
19 ReferencesAnderson, J.R., Reder, L.M. and Simon, H.A. (1996). Situated Learning and Education. Educational Researcher. 25 (4) pp. 5 – 11.Boud, D. and Falchikov, N. (2006). Aligning assessment with long-term learning. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education. 31 (4) ppBrown, J.S., Collins, A. and Duguid, P. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher. 18 (1) pp. 32 – 42.Choi. J. and Hannafin, M. (1995). Situated cognition and learning environments: roles, structures, and implications for design. Journal of Educational Technology Research and Development. 43 (2) pp. 53 – 69.Herrington, J. and Herrington, A. (1998). Authentic assessment and multimedia: how university students respond to a model of authentic assessment. Higher Education Research and Development. 17 (3) pp. 305 – 322.Lave, J. and Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning; legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.Merriam, S.B. and Caffarella, R.S. (1999). (2nd Ed). Learning in Adulthood: a comprehensive guide. Jossey-Bass Publishers: San Francisco.Romer, T.A. (2002). Situated learning and assessment. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education. 27 (3) pp 233 – 241.Stein, D. (1998). Situated learning in adult education. ERIC Digest no
20 ReferencesComputer Science: Ben-Ari, M. (2004). Situated learning in computer science education. Computer Science Education. 14 (2) pp 85 – 100.Engineering: Artemeva, N., Logie, S. and St-Martin, J. (1999). From Page to Stage: How theories of genre and situated learning help introduce engineering students to discipline-specific communication. Technical Communication Quarterly. 8 (3) pp. 301 – 316.Medicine: Swanick, T. (2005). Informal learning in postgraduate medical education: from cognitivism to ‘culturism’. Medical Education. 39 (8) ppNursing: Cope, P., Cuthbertson, P. and Stoddart, B. (2000). Situated learning in the practice placement. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 31 (4) pp. 850 – 856.OSH: Machles, D. (2003). Situated learning; new approach to SH&E training focuses on learning. Professional Safety. Sep pp. 22 – 28.Physiotherapy: Richardson, B. (1999). Professional Development: 2. Professional knowledge and situated learning in the workplace. Physiotherapy. 85 (9) pp 467 – 474.Teaching: Korthagen, F. (2010). Situated learning theory and the pedagogy of teacher education: Towards an integrative view of teacher behavior and teacher learning. Teaching and Teacher Education. 26 (1) pp. 98–106.Designing web-based E-learning: Hung, D. and Chen, D.T. (2001). Situated cognition, Vygotskian thought and learning from the communities of practice perspective: Implications for the design of Web-based E-learning. Educational Media International. 38 (1) pp 3 – 12.
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