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Bandura Competitiveness in Children Quantitative theories and Qualitative themes.

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1 Bandura Competitiveness in Children Quantitative theories and Qualitative themes

2 Focus for Research  In light of Bandura’s model of aggression and self-regulation, can a qualitative study of an adolescent male’s personal account of competition reveal themes that are similar to the theories of Bandura’s years of research in development psychology?  A qualitative study is set up very different than behavioral studies like Bandura’s, but could reveal many of the same horizons of competition, aggression, and self-regulation.

3 Hypothesis  The themes that emerge through a qualitative study of an experience of competition will shed specific light on the general theories of Bandura, arrived at through quantitative study.

4 Bandura Biography  Born in Alberta, Canada  University of British Colombia-Accidental Psychology Major  University of Iowa-Clinical Psychology  Taught at Stanford University (aggression and social learning)  1959-Wrote Adolescent Aggression  Became Fellow for both APA (also President of) and Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences

5 Bandura Terms SSSSocial Learning Theory AAAAggression MMMModeling (Abstract Modeling) SSSSelf regulation SSSSocialization SSSSelf-Efficacy OOOObservational Learning Process

6 Bandura Theories  Social Learning Theory In social situations we learn much more rapidly by observing the behavior of others. These others are called models. In social situations we learn much more rapidly by observing the behavior of others. These others are called models. "Learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do. Fortunately, most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action." –Bandura, Social Learning Theory (1977)

7 Bandura Theories  Observational Learning Process: -Attentional Process -Attentional Process -Retention Process -Retention Process -Motor Reproduction Process -Motor Reproduction Process -Reinforcement and Motivational Process -Reinforcement and Motivational Process  Socialization- Process by which societies induce their members to behave in socially acceptable ways “All cultures seem to try to teach their members when it is acceptable to express aggression. It also is likely that all cultures try to teach people certain modes of cooperation, sharing, and helping. Aggression and cooperative behavior, then, are “targets” of socialization in all cultures.” -Crain p. 201 “All cultures seem to try to teach their members when it is acceptable to express aggression. It also is likely that all cultures try to teach people certain modes of cooperation, sharing, and helping. Aggression and cooperative behavior, then, are “targets” of socialization in all cultures.” -Crain p. 201

8 Bandura Theories  Aggression -A matter of operant conditioning -A matter of operant conditioning -BoBo doll: aggression-rewarded, aggression- punished, no-consequences -BoBo doll: aggression-rewarded, aggression- punished, no-consequences  Abstract Modeling -Children induce the general rules or principles underlying particular behaviors, and they then use these rules to generate entirely new behavior on their own

9 Bandura Theories  Self Regulation -evaluation of own performance -evaluation of own performance -setting of goals and self rewarding for achievement -setting of goals and self rewarding for achievement  Self Efficacy- When we feel we are good at something, we work hard at it despite setbacks. When we doubt our abilities we are more likely to work less energetically and more likely to give up when we encounter setbacks.

10 Bandura and Competition  Criticizes standard school practices of ranking and competitive grading.  Suggests it is better for children to work cooperatively and judge their work according to their own progress.  Bandura considers modeling influences less powerful than successful performances  Self-motivated learning  Self-efficacy

11 Research Questions  Does Bandura’s model of adolescent aggression and societally appropriate behavior come about in a qualitative experiential account of a competitive situation?  Will horizons that arise through Giorgi’s method of qualitative analysis of an experiential account of competitiveness be in line with Bandura’s quantitative research into adolescent aggression and self-regulation?  Will aspects of Bandura’s social learning theory reveal themselves through a phenomenological analysis of a experiential account of competition.

12 Method  Phenomenological Qualitative Research Gorgi’s Method- Meaning Units Gorgi’s Method- Meaning Units Garza’s “Twist”- Thematic Moments Garza’s “Twist”- Thematic Moments  Ask Co-researcher to record an experience according to explication guided questions.  Read and Re-read data collected.  Follow-up with clarification questions.  Pick out moments in the data.  Analyze moments for themes and horizons of the meaning of experience as related to this specific experience.  Create and idiographic thematic narrative.

13 Co-researcher  14 year old boy  ed the initial questions and responded.  Then ed follow up questions and responded again.  Did not seem to misunderstand the questions.

14 Data  The data here is broken into moments and analyzed.  DATA DATA

15 Themes  Competence -belief in ability to build a better boat -belief in ability to build a better boat -confidence that he is smarter than group -confidence that he is smarter than group  The other -other crew members (Jon), other schools, school history -other crew members (Jon), other schools, school history  Sizing-up - He knows the Jon’s idea will fail. He know that his school has always been better - He knows the Jon’s idea will fail. He know that his school has always been better  Hierarchy -places himself as the smartest and as their boat as the fastest -places himself as the smartest and as their boat as the fastest  Outcome oriented

16 Cross-over: Themes and Theories  Competence and self-efficacy  Outcome-oriented and Self-regulation  The other and socialization  Hierarchy and Aggression

17 Conclusion  There is common ground among qualitative and quantitative research when it comes to more complex topics like competition.  While qualitative psychology is not as generalizable, it does better get at the why and the meaning of an experience.  Bandura’s theories were very helpful in understanding and analyzing the moments found in the data from the early adolescent boy.

18 Solution  Qualitative research as well as quantitative research would be best used if psychologists could find a way in which both can be used to study certain topics, especially experiential ones like competiveness.


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