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Systemic Reading Invention Understanding the reading process Information from Dr. John Munro Presented by Concetta Cerra.

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Presentation on theme: "Systemic Reading Invention Understanding the reading process Information from Dr. John Munro Presented by Concetta Cerra."— Presentation transcript:


2 Systemic Reading Invention Understanding the reading process Information from Dr. John Munro Presented by Concetta Cerra

3 Models for explaining reading Mature readers create meaning from text by integrating three sources of information; Semantic cues in the text Syntactic cues in the text Graphophonic cues in the text Luke and Freebody {1990} identify four roles that readers implement as text users Code Breaker Uses knowledge of the relationship between spoken sounds and the graphic symbols used to represent those sounds Meaning Maker Uses knowledge of the meaning patterns in written and spoken texts Text user Uses knowledge of the functions of various kinds of literacy Text analyst Uses knowledge of the ways texts represent different points of view Taken from John Munro

4 The model of reading we use The model of reading we use extends this approach. When we read text we Tell ourselves the words and phrases; work at the word level Work out what the sentences mean: work at the sentence level Link the concepts in the text into a network of ideas; work at the conceptual level Link the ideas into a topic we know; work at the topic level Guess at what the writer wants us to believe; work at dispositional level We form an impression of the text by collecting knowledge from each of these information sessions. In addition to a knowledge of written text, we Know how to use this knowledge to achieve our purpose; this is our metacognitive knowledge, what we know about how to manage our reading activity Use our general knowledge; this includes our - oral language knowledge; what words mean and how they are said, how to use grammar - experiential knowledge; our bank of earlier experiences Taken from John Munro

5 Our model of reading Literacy or text knowledgeWord level Sentence level Conceptual level Topic level Dispositional level Metacognitive knowledge General knowledgeOral language Experiential Taken from John Munro

6 What do we know at each level of literacy knowledge? Text knowledge What text looks like Strategies HOW Attitudes WHY What some words look like What some sentence types look like and mean That some concepts are linked with others What ideas are linked into topics That different texts are used for different purposes How to deal with information we don’t recognise or comprehend immediately; we use actions or strategies What are useful things to do Why to do some things Taken from John Munro

7 An integrated model of reading knowledge Levels of textKnowledge of text features; The ‘what’, conventions of writing Reading strategies; The ‘how to’, What reader knows about how to … Value each level; How readers value … WordWord bankWork out new wordsWorking out words SentenceSentence formsMake sense of sentencesUnderstanding sentences ConceptualLinks between conceptsLink the concepts in textReading ‘between the lines’ TopicHow concepts are linked into topics Work out and use topic of a text to link concepts Using the topic of the text DispositionThe purpose for writing and reading Recognise, use intended purpose of text Knowing why the text was written Self – management What the readers know about how to manage and direct their reading Existing knowledge Oral languageExperiential Taken from John Munro

8 Word level We have a ‘word bank’ or lexicon. Each word we can read is in three forms: Written spellingOrthographic pathcat SaidPhonological path/kat/ MeansContext meaning pathdrinks milk We use some parts of words to read others Word reading patterns Some words we read automatically Some words we use rules to work out We know the value of doing these things Word level reading strategies Match text word directly with stored letter cluster knowledge Segment words into functional units, convert letter clusters to sounds and blends Make analogy with words they know Use the meanings of words that occur with it and the context in which it is used Taken from John Munro

9 Sentence level knowledge Readers know Various grammatical forms and use grammar to link words; they know written sentence structures Sentence ideas or sentence meaning Sentence conventions used in writing such as punctuation At sentence level: Some sentences we read automatically Some sentences we need to work on: - work on bits at a time - re-read - link ideas Sentence level reading strategies When readers read sentences they don’t comprehend immediately, they know actions they can use; Visualise or paraphrase the sentence Segment it into parts and work on each part Re-read it Put themselves in the context of the topic Ask questions about the ideas in the sentence Listen to themselves as they read it Taken from John Munro

10 Conceptual level knowledge Readers have ideas linked together in different ways: Some ideas are linked by the time and place where they occurred in experiences; experiential knowledge stored as images Some ideas are linked in more abstract, decontextualised ways Readers use these networks of ideas to comprehend text when they read What readers’ conceptual knowledge means for reading comprehension Readers have ideas linked together in different ways Some readers need to learn to ‘recode’ what they know to match it with written text KNOW IN IMAGESSAY IN SENTENCEREAD THE TEXT Visualising ideas after you have identified how they are linked helps you to comprehend better Conceptual level reading strategies When readers encounter paragraphs they don’t comprehend immediately at the conceptual level they may: Predict, anticipate, infer ideas, feelings Backtrack/read ahead/work across sentences to link concepts Form an image of a sequence of sentences Consolidate what a sequence of sentences say Taken from John Munro

11 Topic/Theme level knowledge We know that ideas are linked into topics: When we know the topic of a text we can anticipate the ideas that might be mentioned in it We expect some ideas to occur with a particular topic Sometimes ideas we wouldn’t have expected occur for a topic Topic level reading strategies Actions readers use to work out the topic of a text: Use title Scan or skim text Select key words to guess its general theme Use topic sentences Taken from John Munro

12 Dispositional knowledge and reading comprehension Readers know that: Different texts are written for different purposes to convey attitudes, values and feelings Attitudes, valued and feelings conveyed in texts in different ways Dispositional strategies that readers can use What does the writer want me to believe or feel about the topic? What things has the writer done to convince or persuade us? Are there other points of view about this topic? What are alternative attitudes the writer hasn’t mentioned? What is the value of thinking about the attitudes/values behind a text? Why did the writer write the text? How would writers from other groups/cultures write about this topic differently? Taken from John Munro

13 Review of the types of literacy knowledge we have The three types of knowledge at each level of text: Text units we can recognise automatically – the ‘whats’ Actions or reading strategies we can use – the ‘hows’ Values or beliefs we have about each level – the ‘whys’ How do we use these areas of knowledge when we read? When we read we Work at several of the levels at once and may give priority to one or more levels at a time Work at most levels automatically Taken from John Munro

14 We manage and control how we use our literacy knowledge We manage our literacy activity: Frame up reasons or goals for reading a text, plan how we will read Monitor our reading, decide when to re-read, take corrective action, self- correct, monitor our progress Review and self-question to see how we achieve our goals, review or consolidate what they have read Organise the information gained to fit our purpose for reading Existing knowledge scaffolds reading Two main forms of our general knowledge scaffolds our reading activity: Oral language knowledge Experiential knowledge Taken from John Munro

15 Oral language knowledge At word level, what words mean, how they are said, sounds in words At sentence level, how ideas are linked into sentences, grammar At conceptual level, how a theme is communicated in a narrative, description At the pragmatic or dispositional level, the attitudes and values of the writer towards the ideas in the text Our experiential knowledge Experiences, visual imagery knowledge Action, motor knowledge Knowledge of symbols Taken from John Munro

16 The sensory aspects of literacy Sensory input to the knowledge base Auditory input Visual input Touch, feeling input The motor aspects of literacy Motor aspects of expressive language Motion input Articulation Taken from John Munro

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