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Experiential Landscape Archaeology: modeling structured landscape perspectives through geospatial technologies and Higuchi-style indices L. Jesse Rouse.

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Presentation on theme: "Experiential Landscape Archaeology: modeling structured landscape perspectives through geospatial technologies and Higuchi-style indices L. Jesse Rouse."— Presentation transcript:

1 Experiential Landscape Archaeology: modeling structured landscape perspectives through geospatial technologies and Higuchi-style indices L. Jesse Rouse Dept of Geology and Geography West Virginia University Committee: Trevor Harris, Chair Gary Lock Ken Martis Jennifer Miller Briane Turley

2 Directions and ideas Space to place Phenomenology –GIS exogenous –Experience Higuchi (Harris, LaKose and Rouse, 2005) Formalizing the structure of experience 2

3 Landscape Archaeology Cultural Landscapes Landscape studies/histories Landscape Archaeology in the UK Spatial Science and Positivist Archaeology Post-positivist backlash GIS and Landscape Archaeology Phenomenology 3

4 Tilley’s Experience of Landscape Tilley (1994) –Phenomenology of Landscape –link between the individual and the landscape Based on the Phenomenology of Heidegger –Filtered through Tuan –Personal, visual perspective of the landscape 4

5 Evolution of phenomenology Critique of phenomenology in LA –Difficult to capture personal experience –Lack of replicability –Individualistic Phenomenological approaches –Husserl - lebensweldt or “lifeworld” –Heiddeger - dasein or “being in the world” –Merleau-Ponty Tilley (2004) The Materiality of Stone 5

6 Geospatial Technologies Spatial Science GIS and Archaeology –1990s –Mapping, recording, predictive modeling Geographic Information Science –GIS informed by theory –Social critique –Integrating new types of data and representation 6

7 Sensual GIS Gillings and Goodrick (1996) looked at moving GIS beyond the flat 2D map –Make the experience interactive –Take full advantage of the senses Sight, sound, touch, and smell Primarily based on the representation of information Visual can play an important role in modeling 7

8 Tadahiko Higuchi Holistic landscape assessment –based on human physiology and psycho- physical approach –how people perceive and view landscapes –viewshed elements based on human physiology and landscape aesthetics Optimum Angle of elevation Optimum Angle of depression 8

9 0-2m2-5m15-150m150-1km>1km 20%40%10% 20% Time spent on viewing distances Hull and Stewart (1995) Traditional line-of-sight viewshed analysis 9

10 H i - Higuchi Indices Nine indices: –Line of sight –Depth of invisibility –Distance zones –Angle of incidence –Angle of depression –Angle of Elevation –Light –Depth and texture gradient –Temporal Composite index Higuchi,

11 Example Higuchi analysis Laura LaKose, 2004 –Utilized ideas from Higuchi to consider the landscape architecture of a rural area in WV –Focus is on the impact of an existing power plant on the landscape –Modeled Higuchi indices using COTS software 11

12 GAP LULC 30-meter Landsat - 26 categories SSURGO vegetation 10m DEM GIS model

13 Intervisibility Depth of invisibility Short Distance Viewshed Mid- Distance Viewshed Long Distance Viewshed Angle of depression Light analysis Depth and Texture

14 Composite Analysis Reds – poor viewshed qualities Beige – viewshed quality Green – good to exceptional landscape quality

15 Converging ideas Phenomenological approach to landscape archaeology GIS and landscape archaelogy Physical and physiological perspective captured through Higuchi indices Linking ideas and information in order to consider prehistoric cultural landscapes 15

16 Dissertation Goal To develop a structured experiential and phenomenological approach to prehistoric landscapes through the linkage of Higuchi and archaeological indices utilizing geospatial technologies. 16

17 Objective 1 Review the literature on: –existing ideologies and methodologies used to explore landscape archaeology –geospatial technologies in archaeology, especially at the landscape scale –phenomenology in archaeology, and –Higuchi viewsheds. 17

18 Objective 2 Develop the conceptual model to link phenomenology, geospatial technologies and landscape archaeology: –Adapt, amend, and add to Higuchi’s nine viewshed indices to create an archaeological model to support a structured experiential approach to prehistoric landscapes –Insert archaeological specific indices based on taskscapes, resourcescapes, and symbology, and –tie phenomenological research to the spatial frameworks of Geography and landscape archaeology. 18

19 Objective 3 Develop GIS-supported Higuchi-based indices to study prehistoric landscapes by: –embedding existing Higuchi indices within GIS to take advantage of geospatial technologies –establishing archaeological indices that blends spatial assessment with interpretations of prehistoric life experience, and –coupling the GIS model results with personal and expert experience to interpret a given landscape that links egocentric and geocentric landscape perspectives. 19

20 Objective 4 Implement the developed indices through a case study based on an archaeological landscape by: –Utilizing archaeological and physiologically derived information –Conducting field visit(s) to test the ‘fit’ of the model obtained through implementing the indices in a GIS, and –Assessing how quantitative indices differ from expert/personal experience. 20

21 Objective 5 Evaluate the use of structured indices to support an experiential landscape archaeology to: –understand the role and importance of visual and experiential forms of interpretation based on insights gained from case studies, –determine how well the indices support a phenomenological approach to understanding past cultural landscapes, –determine future research avenues for structured indices in prehistoric archaeological landscape analysis. 21

22 Methods Build on cognitive, physiological and physical landscape Generalize visual landscape qualities GIS data analysis Dynamic factors - plumes, clouds, mist, smoke Link Higuchi to phenomenological approach –A structured landscape analysis 22

23 H a - archaeology indices Resourcescapes (Trufkovic, ND) Taskscapes (Ingold, 1993) –Sustenance –Shelter –Community –Travel/movement Sacred space 23

24 H ai – enhanced indices Blend human physiology and culture to better understand human interaction with landscape –Viewshed –Perception –Biological necessity –Cultural interaction –Cosmology 24

25 Index perspectives Egocentric perspective (H i ) –Based on the experience of now Takes into account memory to support the interpretation of current location –Personal perspective Requires a personal experience of the current location only Geocentric perspective (H a ) –Based on memory/knowledge Builds beyond current location by utilizing knowledge of area beyond current view to link view with the larger landscape –Model perspective Requires a personal experience of the location and an understanding beyond the current view H ai 25

26 Phenomenology, Higucghi, and GIS Existing attempts have focused on the egocentric Building a shared experience of the landscape Structured approach 26

27 H ai – proposed indices Line of sight Depth of invisibility Distance zones Angle of incidence, depression, and elevation Light Depth and texture gradient Distance to water Food acquisition Material acquisition Natural shelter 27

28 ‘Scapes to be indexed 28

29 Case Study Hopewell and Adena mounds –Woodland sacred and secular landscape –Extant mounds represent distinct visual and sacred sites –Recorded habitation sites considered to delineate possible communities –Culture closely linked to water resources and material resources (lithic materials, clay, sand) –Recorded camp sites and potential food resource sites considered 29

30 Expected findings Build on existing attempts to integrate Higuchi into a GIS environment Adapt Higuchi indexes and build additional indexes to better capture cultural landscapes Merger of phenomenological experiences of landscape with structured indices and GIS 30

31 Timeline One year project duration Dec – Feb –Literature review and data acquisition Feb – March –Create detailed indices and plan field visits March – July –Field visits and data capture Jan – Nov –Chapters as relevant work is completed –Revisions and editing as necessary 31

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