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Joining Together: Group Theory and Group Skills, 10e David W. Johnson & Frank P. Johnson © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Experiential.

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Presentation on theme: "Joining Together: Group Theory and Group Skills, 10e David W. Johnson & Frank P. Johnson © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Experiential."— Presentation transcript:

1 Joining Together: Group Theory and Group Skills, 10e David W. Johnson & Frank P. Johnson © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Experiential Learning Joining Together Chapter 2

2 Joining Together: Group Theory and Group Skills, 10e David W. Johnson & Frank P. Johnson © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Procedural Learning 1.Learn the theory conceptually 2.Translate this conceptual understanding into a set of skills 3.Use the learned skills 4.Eliminate errors in using the skills by practice so that you would achieve routine use, automated level of mastery Only by using group skills will you gain an understanding of what group dynamics is and how useful it can be.

3 Joining Together: Group Theory and Group Skills, 10e David W. Johnson & Frank P. Johnson © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Action Theories Theories about what steps need to be taken to achieve a desired consequence in a given situation.Theories about what steps need to be taken to achieve a desired consequence in a given situation. When behavior is automatic, action theories are based on tacit knowledge – we are rarely aware of themWhen behavior is automatic, action theories are based on tacit knowledge – we are rarely aware of them

4 Joining Together: Group Theory and Group Skills, 10e David W. Johnson & Frank P. Johnson © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Experiential Learning Generating an action theory from one’s own experiences and then continually modifying it to improve one’s effectivenessGenerating an action theory from one’s own experiences and then continually modifying it to improve one’s effectiveness As a result, the learner’sAs a result, the learner’s –Cognitive structures change –Attitudes are modified –Behavioral repertoire is expanded The three elements are interconnected – one’s whole cognitive-affective behavioral system has to change. Change in only one component will not do itThe three elements are interconnected – one’s whole cognitive-affective behavioral system has to change. Change in only one component will not do it

5 Joining Together: Group Theory and Group Skills, 10e David W. Johnson & Frank P. Johnson © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Take action on the basis of one’s current action theory Implement revised action theory by taking modified action Reflect on how effective actions were and reformulate/refine the action theory Assess consequences and obtain feedback

6 Joining Together: Group Theory and Group Skills, 10e David W. Johnson & Frank P. Johnson © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Principles of Experiential Learning People will believe more in knowledge they discovered themselves than in knowledge presented by othersPeople will believe more in knowledge they discovered themselves than in knowledge presented by others Perceptions of oneself and one’s social environment must change before changes in action theories, attitudes and behaviors will take place.Perceptions of oneself and one’s social environment must change before changes in action theories, attitudes and behaviors will take place. The more supportive and caring the social environment, the freer the person is to experiment with new behaviors, attitudes and action theories.The more supportive and caring the social environment, the freer the person is to experiment with new behaviors, attitudes and action theories. Group context is better than individual context.Group context is better than individual context. Both the person and the social environment changeBoth the person and the social environment change A person accepts a new system of action theories, attitudes and behavioral patterns when he/she accepts membership in a new groupA person accepts a new system of action theories, attitudes and behavioral patterns when he/she accepts membership in a new group

7 Joining Together: Group Theory and Group Skills, 10e David W. Johnson & Frank P. Johnson © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Learning Group Skills 1.Understand the relevance of the skill 2.Understand the skill, its component behaviors, and when it should be used 3.Find situations where you can practice the skill over and over again with a coach 4.Assess how well the skill is implemented 5.Keep practicing until the skill becomes automatic 6.Set up manageable practice units 7.Get friends to encourage you use the skill 8.Help others learn the skill

8 Joining Together: Group Theory and Group Skills, 10e David W. Johnson & Frank P. Johnson © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. “ All Men By Nature Desire To Learn ” Aristotle Experiential learning stresses psychological success, the sense of accomplishment in learningExperiential learning stresses psychological success, the sense of accomplishment in learning What leads to success?What leads to success? –You are able to define your own goals –The goals are related to your central needs and values –You are able to define the paths that lead to the accomplishment of the goals –The goals represent a realistic aspiration for you

9 Joining Together: Group Theory and Group Skills, 10e David W. Johnson & Frank P. Johnson © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Learning How To Be A Participant- Observer Participate actively Observe group members’ actions and the overall group process Give and receive feedback Engage in modified behavior in next group meeting Reflect on feedback personally and jointly with other group members and set goals for improvements

10 Joining Together: Group Theory and Group Skills, 10e David W. Johnson & Frank P. Johnson © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Observing A Group In Action Describing and recording behavior as it occurs (How often are certain events or actions happening?)  inferences about the group processDescribing and recording behavior as it occurs (How often are certain events or actions happening?)  inferences about the group process Problem: potential lack of objectivityProblem: potential lack of objectivity Solution: structured coding systemsSolution: structured coding systems 1.Define exactly the behaviors, skills and events being observed 2.Determine the time period of data collection 3.Enter the actions in question in the 1 st column, and make additional columns for each member of the group. Make a final column to record the total for each row

11 Joining Together: Group Theory and Group Skills, 10e David W. Johnson & Frank P. Johnson © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. A Typical Skill Training Session 1.Introduction, warm up discussion 2.Exercise 3.Participants conceptualize, analyze and summarize their experience, with the help of discussion questions and data feedback 4.General session – integration of learnings, theory, and research 5.Discuss how to apply the learnings and skills 6.Evaluation 7.Closure

12 Joining Together: Group Theory and Group Skills, 10e David W. Johnson & Frank P. Johnson © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Summary Action theory  action  reflection  new (refined) action theory  action  reflection, etc.Action theory  action  reflection  new (refined) action theory  action  reflection, etc. Progressive refinement of knowledge and skills as the procedures are practiced, practiced and practicedProgressive refinement of knowledge and skills as the procedures are practiced, practiced and practiced Participation and observationParticipation and observation Ethical concernsEthical concerns


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