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© Günter K. Stahl PDW: Interactive Teaching Methods in International Management: How to Enrich Case Discussions by Incorporating Experiential Exercises Günter K. Stahl, INSEAD Academy of Management Conference, Philadelphia, August 3-8 2007
© Günter K. Stahl Using Exercises to Enrich Case Discussions: Examples CREATES IDENTITY TopicExamples of Case(s)Exercise(s) Managing Across Cultures David Shorter/Bob Chen (Ivey); Johannes van den Bosch (Ivey) Role plays; Coaching exercise Managing ChangeNissan Turnaround (INSEAD) IBM Turnaround (HBS, INSEAD) Guangdong Electronics (INSEAD) ChangePro Simulation Performance Management Wolfgang Keller at Koenigsbraeu (HBS) Role plays; Coaching exercise Aligning People With Strategy Southwest Airlines (Stanford) GE Talent Machine (HBS) Strategy Mapping exercise International Assignments Andreas Weber (INSEAD) Jaguar or Bluebird? (INSEAD) Europa Construction Intl. exercise (LBS) EthicsChangmai Corporation (INSEAD)Negotiation simulation; Role plays
© Günter K. Stahl Understanding and Working With Cultural Differences 14:00 – 14:30Introduction: Culture and its impact on management 14:30 – 14:50Table discussion: Personal experiences working across cultures 14:50 – 15:30Understanding cultural differences: Cultural frameworks 15:30 – 15:45 [Break] 15:45 – 16:15Group work: Shorter/Chen cases (case analysis and role play preparation) 16:15 – 16:45Role plays and debriefing 16:45 – 17:30Creating cultural synergy: The Map-Bridge-Integrate approach (if time permits, followed by coaching exercise) Shorter/Chen Cases: Suggested Timing (3-hour session)
© Günter K. Stahl Perceptual Processes and Mental Models Vary Across Cultures Example of item measuring whether judgments of similarity are based on family resemblance or rules Source: Nisbett (2003). The geography of thought: How Asians and Westerners think differently. New York: Free Press.
© Günter K. Stahl Nonverbal Negotiating Behaviors Vary Across Cultures Behavior Americans Brazilians Japanese Silent Periods Number of silent periods greater than 10 seconds, per 30 minutes Conversational Overlaps Number of overlaps per 10 minutes Facial Gazing Minutes of gazing per 10 minutes Touching Not including handshaking, per 30 minutes 3.5 10.3 3.3 0 28.6 5.2 4.7 5.5 12.6 1.3 0 Source: Graham (1985), The Influence of culture on the negotiation process. Journal of International Business Studies, 16, pp. 81-96.
© Günter K. Stahl Cultural Orientations Basic issues that all societies throughout history faced, but different societies developed different ways of coping with these issues. Source: Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck (1961). Variations in value orientations. Evanston: Row, Peterson and Company. 1.Environment: What is our relationship with the world around us? (Harmony-Mastery-Subjugation) 2.Human Nature: What is the basic nature of humans? (Good-Mixed-Evil) 3.Relationships: To whom and for whom do we have responsibility? (Hierarchical-Collective-Individualistic) 4.Mode of Activity: What is the primary mode of activity? (Being-Doing-Thinking) 5.Time: How do we think about time? (Past-Present-Future) 6.Space: How do people see and use space? (Private-Public)
© Günter K. Stahl Indonesian Culture German Culture Example: Cultural Analysis
© Günter K. Stahl Cases: David Shorter – Bob Chen Source: Joe DiStefano & Neil Abramson, Ivey Business School * Practice Director** Other Partners Pat CzarskiMary Delehanty Joe Silverman** Bob Chen Erin Cole Jane Klinck** Tak Li Mike McLeod** David Shorter* James-Williams: The New Enterprise Group Organizational Chart
© Günter K. Stahl David Shorter – Bob Chen: Case Questions 1. Taking the perspective of either David Shorter or Bob Chen, please explain the situation as of the end of the case. What are the causes of developments up to now? 2. Prepare to play the role of either Shorter or Chen in their upcoming meeting. a) What is the outcome you desire for the meeting? b) What will you do and say to help this come about? c) What assumptions do you have about the other person's motives and his likely responses to your plan for the meeting?
© Günter K. Stahl David Shorter and Bob Chen: Different Perspectives IssueShorter and othersChen Motivation Get Chen to comply with doing the Softdisk audit Loyalty to client and to the organization McLeod and Silverman frustrated, low confidence Get transfer now, as promised (friends have been transferred without any audit responsibilities) Loyalty to mentor and to the organization Discouraged about chances of resolution, feels trapped Perception Chen is disloyal and hypocritical, is not being straight Personality problem Shorter hasn’t protected me, others want to persuade me Problem is firm’s need Communi- cation Tell Chen to do the audit Meetings are for disclosure and discussion Express disagreements openly and directly Get others to tell them no Meetings are for persuasion and coercion Express disagreements indirectly and avoid conflict Source: Joe DiStefano, IMD, Teaching note: Bob Chen/David Shorter.
© Günter K. Stahl Some Clues to Cross-Cultural Conflict Bob Chen's current behavior vs. his reputation in the firm Resistance to doing the audit vs. previous accommodating behavior "He's out of line; fire him!" vs. solid performer, potential partner, liked by colleagues "He's acting crazy; must be a personality clash” vs. polite (indirect), civil (modest) Disclosure of reluctance to do audit to colleagues vs. shy, private person Apparent agreement to do the audit vs. signals that he won't do it Seems to agree to audit three times vs. Mike doesn't sense real agreement Seems to accept 3 year tax program vs. tells Shorter he doesn't want it Agrees during the 3 hour meeting vs. Mike hears indirectly he won't do it Past self-sufficiency vs. requests for help Has only dealt with Shorter regarding career issues vs. asks Jane for help Source: DiStefano, J., Teaching note: Bob Chen/David Shorter.
© Günter K. Stahl Chinese Culture Canadian Culture Shorter/Chen Cases: Cultural Analysis
© Günter K. Stahl High Context and Low Context Cultures Source: Hall & Hall (1995) Swiss Germans Scandinavian North Americans English Japanese Arabs Italians/Spanish French Messages High Low Context Explicit Implicit Latin Americans
© Günter K. Stahl Sixteen Ways to Avoid Saying ‘No’ in Japanese 1. Vague ‘no’ 2. Vague and ambiguous ‘yes’ or ‘no’ 3. Silence 4. Counter question 5. Tangential responses 6. Exiting (leaving) 7. Equivocation or making excuse 8. Criticizing the question itself 9. Refusing the question 10. Conditional ‘no’ 11. ‘Yes, but …’ 12. Delaying answers 13. Internally ‘yes’, externally ‘no’ 14. Internally ‘no’, externally ‘yes’ 15. Apology 16. The equivalent of English ‘no’ Source: Ueda (1974)
© Günter K. Stahl Sixteen (and More) Ways to Avoid Saying ‘No’: Bob Chen’s Communication Style 10.Conditional ‘no’ 11. ‘Yes, but …’ 12. Delaying answers 13. Internally ‘yes’, externally ‘no’ 14. Internally ‘no’, externally ‘yes’ 15. Apology 16. The equivalent of English ‘no’ 17. Avoid the other person(s) 18. Get another person involved 19. … 1.Vague ‘no’ 2.Vague and ambiguous ‘yes’ or ‘no’ 3.Silence 4.Counter question 5.Tangential responses 6.Exiting (leaving) 7.Lying equivocation or making excuse 8.Criticizing the question itself 9.Refusing the question
© Günter K. Stahl Common Stereotypes About Asian Americans Observed Behavior of Asian Americans Common Stereotypical Misinterpretations Possible Cultural Explanation NonconfrontationalPassive; does not care one way or another Values harmony Quite; reserved Has no opinionsValues opinions of others and fitting in with group Agreeable; dependable follower Unassertive; no leadership qualities Values what is good for group; can be assertive if needed for the group IndustriousMake good “worker bees”Values carrying their share of work; believes hard work will be recognized Technically and scientifically competent No management skills or leader-type charisma Values science as universal language crossing cultural barriers; believes leadership comes in many forms Deferential to othersNot committed to own opinions, judgments, or preferences Values being respectful of others; believes in “saving face” for self and others; values age and wisdom Source: Osland, Kolb & Rubin (2001). Organizational behavior: An experiential approach (7th ed.). Prentice Hall: NJ.
© Günter K. Stahl Update: What Happened During and After the Meeting The meeting was, in Shorter’s words, “a disaster”. Chen felt that he had no choice but to resign. He was sure that his relationships with the partners had been so badly damaged that he could never recover. He also felt that he was being taken advantage of because of his easy nature and that there were other people who could have done the audit. Shorter was stunned. He never expected such a turn of events. Even worse, he hadn’t ever faced a male employee breaking down and crying in his office. He didn’t know how to handle the emotions being displayed by the normally reserved Bob Chen. Shorter was unhappy to lose a good employee (and the Softdisk audit still had to be done!), and Chen was unhappy to leave the firm that had given him the opportunity to work and live in Canada. Chen obtained employment as a financial analyst in a financial institution in Toronto within three weeks of resigning at James-Williams. Source: DiStefano, J., Teaching note: Bob Chen/David Shorter.
© Günter K. Stahl Interactive Teaching Methods in International Management: Enriching Case Discussions by Incorporating Experiential Exercises Günter K.
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