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Theories & Models in Outdoor Education Educ 5165.

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1 Theories & Models in Outdoor Education Educ 5165

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3 Sometimes a tree grows too fast. It grows ahead of its roots. You need to allow time for the roots to take hold. (Anonymous saying about “life”)

4 Objectives for Today Foundations of OE Definition of Experiential Education UMD Home Page This is a hyperlink tool that can be used to go directly to another slide. E.g, a new term can be hyper-linked to its definition. This is a hyperlink to the UMD Homepage

5 Foundations of Outdoor Education Experiential Education Environmental Education Adventure Education Which follow the parent disciplines of Education and Physical Education Psychology Philosophy

6 Paradigm Construct Concept Facts

7 Experiential Education Experiential education is a process through which the learner constructs knowledge, skill, and value from direct experiences (AEE, 11/3/94)

8 Experiential Learning Requisites (Dewey, 1938) SimpleNOT Easy Highly Planned NOT Spontaneous Meaningful NOTMeaning-less (exp. For sake of exp.) Authentic NOT Contrived Rooted in Empiricism NOT Laissez faire Constructs from Personal Meaning

9 Individual MORE THAN Group StructuredNOT Phenomenological Requires Judgement of Instructor NOT Unguided Understanding Cause & Effect requires REFLECTION

10 Essential Elements of Experiential Education (Terwilliger, 1995) RELEVANCE: of the experience to the learner PROGRESSIVE: experiences build on past knowledge & experiences AUTHENTIC: outcomes are concrete with real consequences COMBINED WITH THE OUTWARD BOUND MODEL: CHALLENGING: important to stay w/in potential ability REFLECTION: ”processing” helps to shift from extrinsic to intrinsic benefits

11 Kolb, D.A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development.

12 Outdoor Education “Outdoor Education is the blending of both adventure and environmental approaches into a program of activities or experiences. Through exposure to the outdoor setting, individuals learn about their relationship with the natural environment, relationships between the various concepts of natural ecosystems, and personal relationships with others and with their inner self.” (Priest, 1986)

13 Environmental Education Environmental education is learnng that produces an environmentally responsible citizenry (Hine, Hungerford & Tomera, 1987) “Environmental Education is a learning process that increases people’s knowledge and awareness about the environment and associated challenges, develops the necessary skills and expertise to address these challenges, and fosters attitudes, motivations, and commitments to make informed decisions and take responsible action” (UNESCO, 1978)

14 Approaches to Environmental Education Nature Appreciation Wilderness Preservation Earth Salvation Environmental Issues Resolution Species Protection Environmental Ethics Science Education outside

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17 A GREENPRINT FOR MINNESOTA (MOEE,1993) MINNESOTA’S GOALS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION: TO UNDERSTAND ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS; TO UNDERSTAND THE CAUSE AND EFFECT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HUMAN ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR AND THE ENVIRONMENT;

18 TO BE ABLE TO ANALYZE, DEVELOP, AND USE PROBLEM- SOLVING SKILLS TO UNDERSTAND THE DECISION-MAKING PROCESS OF INDIVIDUALS, INSTITUTIONS, AND NATIONS REGARDING ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES; TO BE ABLE TO EVALUATE ALTERNATIVE RESPONSES TO ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES BEFORE DECIDING ON ALTERNATIVE COURSES OF ACTION; TO UNDERSTAND THE POTENTIAL COMPLEMENTARY NATURE OF MULTIPLE USES OF THE ENVIRONMENT; TO PROVIDE EXPERIENCES TO ASSIST CITIZENS TO INCREASE THEIR SENSITIVITY AND STEWARDSHIP FOR THE ENVIRONMENT; TO PROVIDE INFORMATION CITIZENS NEED TO MAKE INFORMED DECISIONS ABOUT ACTIONS TO TAKE ON ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES.

19 Interpretation “An educational activity which aims to reveal meanings and relationships through the use of original objects, by firsthand experience, and by illustrative media, rather than simply to communicate factual information.” (Tilden, 1957, p. 8)

20 Six Principles of Interpretation (Freeman Tilden, 1957, p9) If it doesn’t relate, it is sterile Information is not interpretation. ( Rather, it is revelation based upon information.) Interpretation is an art. (Any art is teachable) The chief aim is provocation (not instruction) It should present a whole. It should be age appropriate (not a “dilution” of adult material.)

21 Adventure Education A variety of self-initiated activities utilizing an interaction with the natural environment, that contain elements of real or apparent danger, in which the outcome, while uncertain, can be influenced by the participant and the circumstance.” (Ewert, 1989, p.6)

22 Ecological Relationships Physical Skills Interpersonal Growth or Educational Skills Direct Experience Ecotourism Adventure Education *Environmental Education (Formal) *Interpretation (Non-formal) A Model of Outdoor Education

23 Learning Theory Constructivism (Wals, 1987) Concept Mapping (Novak, 1977; Bosquet, 1981) Personal Meaning (Ausubel, 1963) Brain Based (Whole Brain) Learning (Hart, 1983) Native American Learning Styles (Reyes, 1989) Cooperative Learning (Johnson & Johnson)

24 Multiple Intelligence (Gardner, H.,1983)

25 Essential Elements of Constructivism (Terwilliger, 1995) PRECONCEPTIONS MATTER RELEVANCE (PERSONAL MEANING) CONCEPTUAL LEARNING (V. FACTUAL) COGNITIVE DISSONANCE (FOLLOWED BY RESTRUCTURE:FREEZE-THAW-REFREEZE) SUPPORTIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT (PHYSICAL & PSYCHOLOGICAL SAFETY: MASLOW) ABILITY TO GENERATE, CREATE, PRODUCE, EXHIBIT, DEMONSTRATE

26 Constructivist Teaching Sequence (Driver & Oldham, 1986) Orientation (motivation) Elicitation (awareness) Restructuring (conflict, alternatives) Application (consolidation, reinforcement) Review = reflection (learn about learning)

27 Native American Learning (Reyes, 1989) Use family instructional techniques: Demonstration & imitation Let children learn from children Teach through stories and legends Utilize visual skills (observation, visual discrimination, and spatial configuration) Employ active learning strategies Advance holistic intuitive learning (process information from whole to part to understand unity in the large situation)

28 Indian Learning Styles (Banks, J. & Banks, C. (1995). Handbook of research on multicultural education. Macmillon. Pp 490-491. Field dependent/independent learning styles are unreliable, espec. group specific. Yet, the research literature overview concludes similarly to Native American, Hispanic & African American that these groups tend to be field dependent in their learning styles.

29 Indian Learning Styles (summary) Prefer visual, spatial, and perceptual information rather than verbal. Learn privately rather than in public. Use mental images to remember and understand words and concepts rather than word associations. Watch and then do rather than employ trial and error.

30 Have well-formed spatial ability. Learn best from non-verbal mechanisms. Learn experientially & in natural settings Have a generalist orientation, interest in people & things Value conciseness of speech, slightly varied intonation, & limited vocal range. Prefer small-group work. Favor wholistic presentations and visual representations.

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32 What is the outcome of in-service training? In-service can deal with these: Action Skills Knowledge of Action Strategies Knowledge of Issues Situational Factors Intention to Act? Responsible Environmental Behavior Attitudes Locus of Control Personal Responsibility Personality Factors Model of Responsible Behavior (Hines, et al., 1986)

33 Figure 2. A Theory of Planned Behavior. (Ajzen, 1980)

34 Vocational Studies Life Sciences Earth Sciences Social Studies Communications Arts, Humanities Mathematics Physical Education EE The Multi-disciplinary (Infusion) Model (Hungerford & Peyton, 1981)

35 Vocational Studies Life Sciences Earth Sciences Social Studies Communications Arts, Humanities Mathematics Physical Education EE The Inter-disciplinary (Insertion or Mono-disciplinary) Model (Hungerford & Peyton, 1981)

36 Developmental Stages of Environmental Literacy Survival Skills’ Acquisition Relationships with the land and its inhabitants Metaphysical feeling “connected” to the place; A feeling of harmony

37 Learning Stages in Teaching Environmental Literacy SENSORY AWARENESS SKILLS’ DEVELOPMENT & TRAINING RELATIONSHIPS (ECOLOGICAL) ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AWARENESS ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES ACTION

38 Six Principles of Interpretation (Tilden, F., 1957. p. 9) I. ANY INTERPRETATION THAT DOES NOT SOMEHOW RELATE WHAT IS BEING DISPLAYED OR DESCRIBED TO SOMETHING WITHIN THE PERSONALITY OR EXPERIENCE OF THE VISITOR WILL BE STERILE.

39 II. INFORMATION, AS SUCH, IS NOT INTERPRETATION. INTERPRETATION IS REVELATION BASED UPON INFORMATION.

40 III. INTERPRETATION IS AN ART, WHICH COMBINES MANY ARTS, WHETHER THE MATERIALS PRESENTED ARE SCIENTIFIC, HISTORICAL, OR ARCHITECTURAL. ANY ART IS IN SOME DEGREE TEACHABLE.

41 IV.The Chief aim of Interpretation is not instruction but provocation. V. INTERPRETATION SHOULD AIM TO PRESENT A WHOLE RATHER THAN A PART, AND MUST ADDRESS ITSELF TO THE WHOLE MAN (SIC) RATHER THAN ANY PHASE.

42 VI. INTERPRETATION ADDRESSED TO CHILDREN SHOULD NOT BE DILUTION OF THE PRESENTATION TO ADULTS, BUT SHOULD FOLLOW A FUNDAMENTALLY DIFFERENT APPROACH.

43 The Outward Bound Process I. The Learner Motivated - State of readiness II. Unique Physical Environment The use of a novel environment to promote self awareness/ self growth

44 III. Unique Social Environment Placing people with different backgrounds and abilities together to work toward a common goal creates an interdependence. IV. Presentation of a Characteristic Set of Problems which Facilitate Mastery

45 A. Prescriptive & Organized B. Progressive C. Concrete D. Manageable E. Consequential Every activity has a risk of some sort F. Holistic Involves emotional, mental, and physical components.

46 V. Adaptive Dissonance, Mastery, and Attendant Reconstruction (Anxiety, Mastery, and Reconstruction) VI. Summary Golins, G., Walsh, V. (1975)

47 The Outdoor Adventure Pursuits Mix PEOPLE MOTIVATIONS SKILLS SOCIAL ORIENTATION PREFERENCE OPPORTUNITIES SETTINGS PROGRAMS SUPPORT FACTORS ACTIVITIES REWARDS Psychological SOCIOLOGICAL EDUCATIONAL PHYSICAL

48 Influencing Factors on the Outcome of a Risk Activity Unforeseen beneficial circumstances Proper training Personal abilities Correct decision making Unforeseen detrimental circumstances Poor training Personal inability's Incorrect decision making Outcome greater control loss of control

49 FEAR MODIFICATION TECHNIQUES TechniqueDefinitionComments Systematic desensitization Flooding Modeling Rehearsal Gradual exposure to source Prolonged exposure to fear Learning new coping methods Practicing different adaptive behaviors Useful, time-consuming Often inappropriate, can be debilitating Powerful, can use instructor behavior Very useful but requires preplanning and time

50 Attitude-Behavior Model (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975) Beliefs about activity Attitude about activity Intentions toward activity Behavior with activity


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