3 Sometimes a tree grows too fast. It grows ahead of its roots. You need to allow time for the roots to take hold.(Anonymous saying about “life”)
4 This is a hyperlink to the UMD Homepage Objectives for TodayFoundations of OEDefinition of Experiential EducationUMD Home PageThis is a hyperlink to the UMD HomepageThis is a hyperlink tool that can be used to go directly to another slide. E.g, a new term can be hyper-linked to its definition.
5 Foundations of Outdoor Education •Experiential Education•Environmental Education•Adventure EducationWhich follow the parent disciplines of•Education and Physical Education• PsychologyPhilosophy
7 Experiential Education Experiential education is a process through which the learner constructs knowledge, skill, and value from direct experiences (AEE, 11/3/94)
8 Experiential Learning Requisites (Dewey, 1938) Simple NOT EasyHighly Planned NOT SpontaneousMeaningful NOT Meaning-less (exp. For sake of exp.)Authentic NOT ContrivedRooted in Empiricism NOT Laissez faireConstructs from Personal Meaning
9 Individual MORE THAN Group Structured NOT PhenomenologicalRequires Judgement of Instructor NOT UnguidedUnderstanding Cause & Effect requires REFLECTION
10 Essential Elements of Experiential Education (Terwilliger, 1995) RELEVANCE: of the experience to the learnerPROGRESSIVE: experiences build on past knowledge & experiencesAUTHENTIC:outcomes are concrete with real consequences COMBINED WITH THE OUTWARD BOUND MODEL:CHALLENGING:important to stay w/in potential abilityREFLECTION:”processing” helps to shift from extrinsic to intrinsic benefits
11 Kolb, D.A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development.
12 Outdoor Education“Outdoor Education is the blending of both adventure and environmental approaches into a program of activities or experiences. Through exposure to the outdoor setting, individuals learn about their relationship with the natural environment, relationships between the various concepts of natural ecosystems, and personal relationships with others and with their inner self.” (Priest, 1986)
13 Environmental Education Environmental education is learnng that produces an environmentally responsible citizenry (Hine, Hungerford & Tomera, 1987)“Environmental Education is a learning process that increases people’s knowledge and awareness about the environment and associated challenges, develops the necessary skills and expertise to address these challenges, and fosters attitudes, motivations, and commitments to make informed decisions and take responsible action” (UNESCO, 1978)
17 A GREENPRINT FOR MINNESOTA (MOEE,1993) MINNESOTA’S GOALS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION: TO UNDERSTAND ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS;TO UNDERSTAND THE CAUSE AND EFFECT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HUMAN ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR AND THE ENVIRONMENT;
18 TO BE ABLE TO ANALYZE, DEVELOP, AND USE PROBLEM-SOLVING SKILLS TO UNDERSTAND THE DECISION-MAKING PROCESS OF INDIVIDUALS, INSTITUTIONS, AND NATIONS REGARDING ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES;TO BE ABLE TO EVALUATE ALTERNATIVE RESPONSES TO ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES BEFORE DECIDING ON ALTERNATIVE COURSES OF ACTION;TO UNDERSTAND THE POTENTIAL COMPLEMENTARY NATURE OF MULTIPLE USES OF THE ENVIRONMENT;TO PROVIDE EXPERIENCES TO ASSIST CITIZENS TO INCREASE THEIR SENSITIVITY AND STEWARDSHIP FOR THE ENVIRONMENT;TO PROVIDE INFORMATION CITIZENS NEED TO MAKE INFORMED DECISIONS ABOUT ACTIONS TO TAKE ON ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES.
19 Interpretation“An educational activity which aims to reveal meanings and relationships through the use of original objects, by firsthand experience, and by illustrative media, rather than simply to communicate factual information.” (Tilden, 1957, p. 8)
20 Six Principles of Interpretation (Freeman Tilden, 1957, p9) If it doesn’t relate, it is sterileInformation is not interpretation. (Rather, it is revelation based upon information.)Interpretation is an art. (Any art is teachable)The chief aim is provocation (not instruction)It should present a whole.It should be age appropriate (not a “dilution” of adult material.)
21 Adventure EducationA variety of self-initiated activities utilizing an interaction with the natural environment, that contain elements of real or apparent danger, in which the outcome, while uncertain, can be influenced by the participant and the circumstance.” (Ewert, 1989, p.6)
22 A Model of Outdoor Education Direct Experience Ecological Relationships*Environmental Education(Formal)*Interpretation(Non-formal)EcotourismPhysical SkillsInterpersonal Growth or Educational SkillsAdventure Education
23 Learning Theory Constructivism (Wals, 1987) Concept Mapping (Novak, 1977; Bosquet, 1981)Personal Meaning (Ausubel, 1963)Brain Based (Whole Brain) Learning (Hart, 1983)Native American Learning Styles (Reyes, 1989)Cooperative Learning (Johnson & Johnson)
27 Native American Learning (Reyes, 1989) Use family instructional techniques: Demonstration & imitationLet children learn from childrenTeach through stories and legendsUtilize visual skills (observation, visual discrimination, and spatial configuration)Employ active learning strategiesAdvance holistic intuitive learning (process information from whole to part to understand unity in the large situation)
28 Indian Learning Styles (Banks, J. & Banks, C. (1995) Indian Learning Styles (Banks, J. & Banks, C. (1995). Handbook of research on multicultural education. Macmillon. PpField dependent/independent learning styles are unreliable, espec. group specific.Yet, the research literature overview concludes similarly to Native American, Hispanic & African American that these groups tend to be field dependent in their learning styles.
29 Indian Learning Styles (summary) Prefer visual, spatial, and perceptual information rather than verbal.Learn privately rather than in public.Use mental images to remember and understand words and concepts rather than word associations.Watch and then do rather than employ trial and error.
30 Have well-formed spatial ability. Learn best from non-verbal mechanisms.Learn experientially & in natural settingsHave a generalist orientation, interest in people & thingsValue conciseness of speech, slightly varied intonation, & limited vocal range.Prefer small-group work.Favor wholistic presentations and visual representations.
32 Model of Responsible Behavior What is the outcome of in-service training?In-service can deal with these:Action SkillsSituational FactorsKnowledge of Action StrategiesKnowledge of IssuesResponsible Environmental BehaviorIntention to Act?AttitudesPersonality FactorsLocus of ControlPersonal ResponsibilityModel of Responsible Behavior(Hines, et al., 1986)
33 Figure 2. A Theory of Planned Behavior. (Ajzen, 1980)
35 Vocational StudiesPhysical EducationLife SciencesEEMathematicsEarth SciencesSocial StudiesArts, HumanitiesCommunicationsThe Inter-disciplinary (Insertion or Mono-disciplinary) Model (Hungerford & Peyton, 1981)
36 Developmental Stages of Environmental Literacy SurvivalSkills’ AcquisitionRelationships with the land and its inhabitantsMetaphysical feeling “connected” to the place; A feeling of harmony
37 Learning Stages in Teaching Environmental Literacy SENSORY AWARENESSSKILLS’ DEVELOPMENT & TRAININGRELATIONSHIPS (ECOLOGICAL)ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AWARENESSENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES ACTION
38 Six Principles of Interpretation (Tilden, F., 1957. p. 9) I. ANY INTERPRETATION THAT DOES NOT SOMEHOW RELATE WHAT IS BEING DISPLAYED OR DESCRIBED TO SOMETHING WITHIN THE PERSONALITY OR EXPERIENCE OF THE VISITOR WILL BE STERILE.
39 II. INFORMATION, AS SUCH, IS NOT INTERPRETATION II. INFORMATION, AS SUCH, IS NOT INTERPRETATION. INTERPRETATION IS REVELATION BASED UPON INFORMATION.
40 III. INTERPRETATION IS AN ART, WHICH COMBINES MANY ARTS, WHETHER THE MATERIALS PRESENTED ARE SCIENTIFIC, HISTORICAL, OR ARCHITECTURAL ANY ART IS IN SOME DEGREE TEACHABLE.
41 IV.The Chief aim of Interpretation is not instruction but provocation. V. INTERPRETATION SHOULD AIM TO PRESENT A WHOLE RATHER THAN A PART, AND MUST ADDRESS ITSELF TO THE WHOLE MAN (SIC) RATHER THAN ANY PHASE.
42 VI. INTERPRETATION ADDRESSED TO CHILDREN SHOULD NOT BE DILUTION OF THE PRESENTATION TO ADULTS, BUT SHOULD FOLLOW A FUNDAMENTALLY DIFFERENT APPROACH.
43 The Outward Bound Process I. The LearnerMotivated - State of readinessII. Unique Physical EnvironmentThe use of a novel environment to promote self awareness/ self growth
44 III. Unique Social Environment Placing people with different backgrounds and abilities together to work toward a common goal creates an interdependence.IV. Presentation of a Characteristic Set of Problems which Facilitate Mastery
45 A. Prescriptive & Organized B. ProgressiveC. ConcreteD. ManageableE. ConsequentialEvery activity has a risk of some sortF. HolisticInvolves emotional, mental, and physical components.
46 V. Adaptive Dissonance, Mastery, and Attendant Reconstruction (Anxiety, Mastery, and Reconstruction)VI. SummaryGolins, G., Walsh, V. (1975)
47 The Outdoor Adventure Pursuits Mix PEOPLE•MOTIVATIONS•SKILLS•SOCIAL ORIENTATION•PREFERENCEOPPORTUNITIES•SETTINGS•PROGRAMS•SUPPORT FACTORS•ACTIVITIESREWARDS•Psychological•SOCIOLOGICAL•EDUCATIONAL•PHYSICAL
48 Influencing Factors on the Outcome of a Risk Activity Unforeseen beneficial circumstancesProper trainingPersonal abilitiesCorrect decision makingUnforeseen detrimental circumstancesPoor trainingPersonal inability'sIncorrect decision makingOutcomegreater controlloss of control
49 FEAR MODIFICATION TECHNIQUES DefinitionComments•Systematicdesensitization•Flooding•Modeling•Rehearsal•Gradual exposureto source•Useful, time-consuming•Prolonged exposureto fear•Often inappropriate,can be debilitating•Learning new copingmethods•Powerful, can useinstructor behavior•Practicing differentadaptive behaviors•Very useful butrequires preplanningand time
50 Attitude-Behavior Model (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975) BeliefsaboutactivityAttitudeaboutactivityIntentionstowardactivityBehaviorwithactivity