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Group Therapy Training Jerrold Lee Shapiro, Ph.D. Susan Bernadett-Shapiro, Ph.D. Co-Chairs.

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Presentation on theme: "Group Therapy Training Jerrold Lee Shapiro, Ph.D. Susan Bernadett-Shapiro, Ph.D. Co-Chairs."— Presentation transcript:

1 Group Therapy Training Jerrold Lee Shapiro, Ph.D. Susan Bernadett-Shapiro, Ph.D. Co-Chairs

2 Participants Gerald Corey & Mike Russell CSU Fullerton l Jerrold Shapiro Santa Clara Univ. l John Caffaro Alliant (CSPP) l Judith Coche U. Penn. Medical l Haim Weinberg Israel Assoc. of group psychotherapy l Susan Bernadett-Shapiro Private Practice (Discussant) Los Altos, CA

3 Introduction l These programs are the atypical ones -- long-standing and successful l Typical number of required group classes in Ph.D., Psychiatric Residency programs is Zero l Typical number of required group classes in Masters programs is one l Characteristically mental health professionals are trained in individual and/or family therapy then expected to do groups l Despite research indicating the value of group therapy, there remains much institutional resistance.

4 Group Training for Undergraduates Gerald Corey & J. Michael Russell

5 Combining Experiential and Didactic Methods of Teaching Group Counseling J. Michael Russell and Gerald Corey CSU Fullerton

6 Experiential Approaches l best learning how groups function l weekend training workshop in which students function both as members and co-facilitators l observing live demonstrations by the instructor with students in the group course l dealing with students' personal concerns that might enhance or inhibit their ability to function as group counselors

7 Ethical Issues in Training Group Counselors l Requiring self-growth activities l Informed consent as a basic safeguard l Combining experiential and didactic approaches in training l Blending roles and multiple roles l Challenge of maintaining boundaries in training l Potential problems of multiple roles in teaching

8 Ethical Issues in Training Group Counselors (Cont.) l Pitfalls combining experiential/didactic l Safeguard students and enhance learning l Distinguishing between training and therapy l Use of power and avoidance of exploitation l Designing safeguards and creating best possible training climate

9 Classes l Fall (Junior Year) l HS300 Character and Conflict l Theories & Techniques l Fall (Senior Year) l HS 416 3-day workshop l Group leadership practicum l placement in C & C group and supervision l Spring (Junior Year) l HS 450 1st field placement l Group Theory & Practice l Spring (Senior Year) l 3rd field placement or l repeat HS 416; 490

10 Graduate Counseling Program l First Year l Therapeutic Group l Weekend workshop in self- exploration l Second Year l Groups: Process and Practice lead a group in an agency

11 Masters Level Training Jerrold Lee Shapiro

12 l Leading Groups since 1965 l dissertation and 30+ years of research l closed ended groups - generally brief l Primary focus for therapy and teaching & the predictable process phases/stages l 2 books on this approach: Methods of Group Counseling and Psychotherapy (1978); Brief Group Treatment (1997). l Consistent training programs with grad students since 1970 --UH Ph.D. program SCU MA program since 1982

13 Core of the Training l Groups and training are process oriented l Considerable research support for this approach l Importance of personal growth and therapist- in-training as client l Non-traditional focus (on the how vs the what) creates tension and increased vigilence l Vertical integration of a sequence of courses and experiences l student experience closest to clinical practice

14 Personal Growth l Experiential learning involves affective as well as cognitive levels l Focus on interaction between self and material vs focus on material l self-help and team building involve personal change as it’s own end l It’s the way we learn in therapy: combination of affect and cognition - it’s what we are training people to do with others

15 Ethical Considerations l Groups are led by mental health professionals from the community l Supervised by another professional who is not a full time faculty member l Students analyze their journals for process; do not hand in the journal l An extensive system of help is articulated for the rare students who are identified as “troubled” or potentially dangerous as professionals l Videotapes available only to leaders and members

16 SCU PROGRAM l Required of all students in the M.A. Program Required component is one class in group therapy leadership and a lab group.

17 Santa Clara University Group Therapy Training l Term 1 (Required) l Membership in lab group l Class in group process leadership l Term 2 (elective) l Membership in videotaped marathon group l analysis of leaders in that group l analysis/critique of tapes of professional group leaders

18 Santa Clara University Group Therapy Training - 2 l Term 3 l Co-lead Lab group with professional leader l group leadership in practicum setting l Term 4 -- after graduation and 2+ years post licensure l Lead lab group with student co- leader

19 UH group training 1970 - 1976 l Term 1 l 30 hour lab group experience with professional or advanced student leaders - videotaped l Term 2 l Class in practice, process and procedures --- l videotape the lab group of first term students sit in on supervision l Term 3 l Advanced group seminar: co- lead group with experienced leader (supervision) l Lead group at practicum site l Term 4 l co-lead group with junior co- leader (supervision) l Lead group at practicum site l Term 5 l supervise group co-leaders l Lead group at practicum site

20 Group Therapy Training in a Doctoral Program John Caffaro

21 Group Therapy Training in a Doctoral Program l Basic Assumptions –Integrative-developmental sequencing l combines didactic and experiential learning l makes use of “reflecting team” l focus on peer learning l emphasis on the integration of knowledge, application of skills, and use of self awareness

22 Segment 1: Cohesion Building and Didactic Instruction l Mini Lecture and Skill Building –assigned readings –structured role plays l Development of a “learning group” –ground rules for confidentiality, safety, and accountability

23 Segment II: Co-Leadership and the Reflecting Team Environment l Students co-lead “Learning subgroup” –development of co-leadership skills –observation by reflecting team –instructor serves as live consultant l Large Group Debriefing –co-leader self assessment –structured peer supervision

24 Segment III: Co-Leadership, Peer Supervision, and Multi-level Reflecting Team l Rotating students co-lead volunteer group –observation by peers –live instructor consultation l Multi-level reflecting team –structured peer supervision –instructor supervision –group member feedback –co-leader self assessment


26 FOCUS OF THIS BRIEF REPORT l The culture of change l The learning progression l The teaching components l Involving experts in the field l Feedback from the Psychiatric Residents l Future Plans

27 The culture of change l Earlier emphasis on biochemical intervention augmented by later added emphasis on psychotherapies l Previous training program in group therapy left residents unsure about the field and their place in it l Residency Training Directors Drs. Rostain and Summers strengthened training in individual psychodynamic & behavioral psychotherapies, then moved to systems therapies

28 The Learning Progression l 2 nd Year Residents : Fall course in didactic foundations, Winter 12 hour group process course l 3 rd Year Residents: Fall weekend process group Spring junior co-lead l 4 th Year Residents Advanced didactic, senior co-lead, electives available All work counts towards Certification in Group Psychotherapy

29 The Teaching Components l Didactic learning: structured coursework based on theory, research l Experiential: group process experiences off campus, confidentiality maintained l Supervision: ongoing individual and group supervision of group work l Electives: in the clinical community

30 Involving Experts in the Field l Departmental interest in training by Certified Group Therapists l Teaching and Supervision by clinically active adjunctive clinical faculty Respect for knowledge and research base evident from Residents

31 Early Feedback from Residents to first year teaching l Positive feedback –Superb instructor –Role playing and modeling useful –Clear course goals –Useful professionally l Lukewarm Feedback –Egotistical instructor –Requires more structure –Readings too academic –Hard to travel far for short course

32 Future Plans for Group Training l One reading per class l Longer classes help with travel time l Each class outlined for maximal clarity l Increased focus on practice issues l Continued emphasis on process groups l Continued integration of Residents’ feedback

33 Comparing training programs for group leaders in Israel, Europe and the USA Haim Weinberg

34 Group Leaders' Training Programs in Israel: l Studies of one day per week for two years. l semester (28 hours) Theory Course l Sensitivity group for one semester (28 hrs). l Course on group leader’s skills (28 hours). l Observe a live group behind a one-way mirror for one semester (28 hours) l Co-lead a group with a senior group-leader under supervision

35 Group Analysis Training in Europe (EGATIN requirements): l Tripartite structure: personal group therapy, theory seminars and supervised practice l minimum of three years training l Training can be done in bi-monthly weekend blocks: minimum 5 blocks per year. l Trainees should conduct a once-weekly group that extends at least two years l 120 hours of supervision; 160 hours of theory; Presentation of a clinical paper.

36 Certified Group Psychotherapist (CGP) in the USA: l 12 course hours of study in group psychotherapy theory and practice. l 300 hours of group psychotherapy experience as a leader or co-leader l 75 hours of group psychotherapy supervision.

37 Discussant Susan Bernadett-Shapiro


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