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Agenda Introduction/Syllabus Review Introduction/Syllabus Review Exercise Review Exercise Review Discussion/Comparison of Lists Discussion/Comparison of.

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Presentation on theme: "Agenda Introduction/Syllabus Review Introduction/Syllabus Review Exercise Review Exercise Review Discussion/Comparison of Lists Discussion/Comparison of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Agenda Introduction/Syllabus Review Introduction/Syllabus Review Exercise Review Exercise Review Discussion/Comparison of Lists Discussion/Comparison of Lists Examining the Nature of Groups Examining the Nature of Groups The Experiential Learning Process The Experiential Learning Process Participant Observation Participant Observation

2 Characteristics of Effective Groups Define roles Define roles Time management Time management Equal voices/input Equal voices/input Goal setting Goal setting Listening Listening Participation Participation Motivation Motivation Encouragement Encouragement Confidentiality Confidentiality Checks and balances Checks and balances Communication Communication Make goals Make goals Participation Participation Accountability Accountability Time management Time management Time lines/checkpoints Time lines/checkpoints Motivation Motivation Equal roles Equal roles Open discussions Open discussions Comfortable Comfortable Group 1Group 2

3 Guidelines for Effective Groups Establish clear, operational, relevant group goals Establish clear, operational, relevant group goals Establish effective two-way communication Establish effective two-way communication Ensure that leadership and participation are distributed among all group members Ensure that leadership and participation are distributed among all group members Ensure power is distributed and influence tactics vary to fit the situation Ensure power is distributed and influence tactics vary to fit the situation Ensure decisions are made using the appropriate method Ensure decisions are made using the appropriate method Encourage structured controversies to facilitate creativity Encourage structured controversies to facilitate creativity Ensure conflict of interests are addressed and resolved constructively Ensure conflict of interests are addressed and resolved constructively Adapted from Johnson, D.W. & Johnson, F. P. (2000) Joining Together: Group Theory and Group Skills, p. 13

4 Characteristics of Effective Work Teams Informal, relaxed atmosphere Informal, relaxed atmosphere Lot of “on-task” discussion (all members participate) Lot of “on-task” discussion (all members participate) Well-defined tasks or objectives Well-defined tasks or objectives Group members listen to one another Group members listen to one another There IS disagreement There IS disagreement Criticism is frequent, frank, comfortable and constructive Criticism is frequent, frank, comfortable and constructive Ideas and feelings are freely expressed Ideas and feelings are freely expressed Clear assignments are made and accepted Clear assignments are made and accepted Group leadership shifts to members from time to time Group leadership shifts to members from time to time The group is aware of how it is operating The group is aware of how it is operating From Douglas McGregor, The Human Side of Enterprise, pp Copyright © 1960

5 Definition of a Group Group Group Two or more individuals Two or more individuals Who interact with one another Who interact with one another Are interdependent upon one another Are interdependent upon one another Aware of belonging to a group Aware of belonging to a group

6 Advantages of Working in Groups Increased productivity (depending on the task) Additive - the contributions of each member are combined into a single group product. Ex: relay race, moving a heavy object. Ex: relay race, moving a heavy object. Conjunctive - the group’s final product is determined by its poorest performing member. Ex: Mountain climbers Ex: Mountain climbers Disjunctive - the group’s final product is determined by the best or most competent person in the group. Ex: Math problems Ex: Math problems

7 Disadvantages of Working in Groups Social Loafing Social Loafing Free Riding Free Riding Groupthink Groupthink Destructive Conflict Destructive Conflict Other Experiences Other Experiences

8 Experiential Learning EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING 'Experiential learning' can apply to any kind of learning through experience. 'Experiential learning' is often used by providers of training or education to refer to a structured learning sequence which is guided by a cyclical model of experiential learning. 'Experiential learning' can apply to any kind of learning through experience. 'Experiential learning' is often used by providers of training or education to refer to a structured learning sequence which is guided by a cyclical model of experiential learning. Less contrived forms of experiential learning (including accidental or unintentional learning) are usually described in more everyday language such as 'learning from experience' or 'learning through experience' Less contrived forms of experiential learning (including accidental or unintentional learning) are usually described in more everyday language such as 'learning from experience' or 'learning through experience'

9 Kolb’s Model of Experiential Learning The learning process often begins with a person carrying out a particular action and then seeing the effect of the action in this situation. The second step is to understand these effects in the particular instance so that if the same action was taken in the same circumstances it would be possible to anticipate what would follow from the action. The third step would be understanding the general principle under which the particular instance falls The last step, is the application of the principle through action in a new circumstance within the range of generalization.

10 How to Be an Effective Participant Observer 1 Actively observe the process Goal setting activities Goal setting activities Communication Communication Trust Trust Cohesion Cohesion Leadership Leadership Use of power Use of power Decision making Decision making Conflict resolution Conflict resolution 2 Give and receive feedback 3 Reflect and set goals for improvement 4 Modify behavior accordingly


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