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Introduction to Computer

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Computer"— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Computer
2. Computer Hardware Prof. Dr. M. H. Assal Introduction to Computer AS 26/10/2014

2 Computer Hardware Computer hardware is the collection of physical elements that comprise a computer system Computer hardware can be classified as following: Input devices Output devices System case Storage Devices Video Controllers Introduction to Computer

3 Input devices The Keyboard The Mouse Pens/Styluses Touchscreen
Game Controller Barcode Image Scanner and OCR Biometric Readers Microphone and Speech Recognition Digital Camera Introduction to Computer

4 Keyboard Introduction to Computer

5 How a Keyboard Works Introduction to Computer

6 Mouse The mouse is the most common pointing device for a desktop computer. Mouse Techniques Pointing Clicking Double-clicking Dragging Right-clicking Introduction to Computer

7 Pens/Styluses Many devices today, including some desktop computers and many tablet computers and mobile devices, can accept pen input. Introduction to Computer

8 Touch Screens Touch screens allow the user to touch the screen with his or her finger to select commands or otherwise provide input to the computer associated with the touch screen. Introduction to Computer

9 Game Controllers A game controller is a device used with games or entertainment systems to provide input to a video game, typically to control an object or character in the game. Introduction to Computer

10 Bar Code Readers A barcode is an optical code that represents data with bars of varying widths or heights. Introduction to Computer

11 Image Scanners A scanner, more officially called an optical scanner, captures an image of an object (usually a flat object, such as a printed document, photograph, or drawing) in digital form, and then transfers that data to a computer. Introduction to Computer

12 Image Scanners Scanning Quality and Resolution
The quality of scanned images is indicated by optical resolution. Resolution usually measured in the number of dots per inch (DPI). Typical flatbed scanner has a resolution of 300 DPI. A higher resolution results in a better image but also results in a larger file size. Introduction to Computer

13 Optical Character Recognition (OCR)
Optical character recognition (OCR) refers to the ability of a computer to recognize text characters printed on a document. The characters are read by a compatible scanning device, such as a flatbed scanner and then OCR software is used to identify each character and convert it to editable text. Introduction to Computer

14 Biometric Readers Biometric readers are used to read biometric data about a person so that the individual’s identity can be verified based on a particular unique physiological characteristic (such as a fingerprint or a face) or personal trait (such as a voice or a signature). Introduction to Computer

15 Microphones and Speech Recognition
Microphone: is a device used for capturing sound as electrical signals. Microphones can accept auditory input. A microphone requires a sound card in the PC. A Sound card can digitize analog sound signals(mic input).Also it converts digital sound signals to analog form(speaker output). With speech recognition software, you can use your microphone to dictate text, navigate programs, and choose commands. Speech recognition is the translation of spoken words into text. It is also known as "automatic speech recognition", "ASR“. Introduction to Computer

16 Digital Camera PC video cameras digitize full-motion images. Digital cameras capture still images. Introduction to Computer

17 Output devices Monitors Sound Systems Printers
Introduction to Computer

18 Monitors Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)
The first computer monitors used cathode ray tubes (CRT) until the early 1980s. The monitors were monochrome, flickered and the image quality was poor. In 1981, IBM introduced the Color Graphics Adapter. Introduction to Computer

19 Liquid Crystal Display
A Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) uses charged liquid crystals located between two sheets of clear material (usually glass or plastic) to light up the appropriate pixels to form the image on the screen. Introduction to Computer

20 Light Emitting Diode (LED)
LED (light emitting diode) technology is another flat-panel technology commonly used with consumer products, such as alarm clocks, Christmas lights, car headlights, and more. , Another form of LED— OLED—may eventually replace LCD technology entirely. Introduction to Computer

21 Wearable Displays A Wearable Display (such as the eyeglasses-based display) projects the image from a mobile device (usually a mobile phone or portable digital media player) to a display screen built into the glasses. Introduction to Computer

22 Video Projectors A video projector is an image projector that receives a video signal and projects the corresponding image on a projection screen using a lens system. Introduction to Computer

23 Monitor Features Size: is the diagonal measurement of its face, in inches. Resolution: is the number of pixels on the screen, expressed as a matrix. Half HD (720p) monitors has resolution of 1280x720 Full HD (1080) monitors has resolution of 1920x1080 Refresh rate: is the number of times each second that the electron guns scan the screen's pixels. Refresh rate is measured in Hertz (Hz), or cycles per second. Look for a refresh rate of 72 Hz or higher. A slower rate may cause eyestrain. Dot pitch: is the distance between the phosphor dots that make up a single pixel. Introduction to Computer

24 Sound Systems Introduction to Computer

25 Printers Printer categories Printers produce images through either impact or nonimpact technologies. Impact ex. a dot-matrix printer Nonimpact ex. laser printers and ink-jet printers Introduction to Computer

26 Factors for evaluating Printers
Image Quality – Measured in dots per inch (dpi). Most printers produce 300 – 1200 dpi. Speed – Measured in pages per minute (ppm) or characters per second (cps). Initial Cost – Consumer printers cost $250 or less, but professional printers can cost thousands of dollars. Cost of operation – This refers to the cost of supplies used by the printer. Introduction to Computer

27 Types of printers A Dot Matrix Printer or impact matrix printer is a type of computer printer with a print head that runs back and forth, or in an up and down motion, on the page and prints by impact, striking an ink-soaked cloth ribbon against the paper, much like the print mechanism on a typewriter. Introduction to Computer

28 Ink Jet Printers Ink-jet printers form images by spraying tiny drops liquid ink from one or more ink cartridges onto the page, one printed line at a time. Introduction to Computer

29 Laser Printers Laser printers are the standard for business documents and come in both personal and network versions; they are also available as both color and black-and-white printers. Introduction to Computer

30 Multifunction Capabilities Printers
Introduction to Computer

31 Storage devices Storage Devices are the data storage devices that are used in the computers to store the data. The computer has many types of data storage devices. They can be classified as: Removable data Storage Devices USB Flash Drives External or Portable Hard Drives Memory Cards Optical Discs (Blu-ray, DVDs. CDs) Non-removable data Storage Devices Internal Hard Drives Solid State Drives Introduction to Computer

32 Types of Storage Devices
Floppy Discs is a data storage medium that is composed of a disk of thin, flexible floppy) magnetic storage medium encased in a rectangular plastic shell. Magnetic tapes It has been used for data storage for over 50 years. Tape can be substantially less expensive than disk or other data storage options. Modern usage is primarily as a high capacity medium for backups and archives. In the other side, Writing and retrieving data is slow. Introduction to Computer

33 Types of Storage Devices
Hard Disk Drive (HDD) It is the device used to store large amounts of digital information in computers and related equipment like iPods and games consoles . Hard disk drives are used to store operating systems, application software and working data. However, Hard disk drives may not be suitable for applications which need portability. Introduction to Computer

34 Types of Storage Devices
Portable hard discs Useful for transferring data (programs, pictures, etc.) between computers. Has Large storage capacity (relative to other storage devices such as floppy discs). Hard drives have to be handled quite carefully. More expensive than other forms of removable media. Introduction to Computer

35 Types of Storage Devices
Solid state storage devices Widely used as removable storage. They are more robust than other forms of storage. Examples: Solid State Drives Memory sticks. Flash memory cards Introduction to Computer

36 Types of Storage Devices
Optical Storage Devices CD-ROMs are popularly used to distribute computer software, including video games and multimedia applications, though any data can be stored (up to the capacity limit of a disc). DVD is an optical disc storage format, invented and developed by Philips, Sony, Toshiba, and Panasonic in DVDs offer higher storage capacity than Compact Discs while having the same dimensions. Introduction to Computer

37 Disk formatting Disk formatting is the process of preparing a data storage device such as a hard disk drive, solid-state drive, floppy disk or USB flash drive for initial use. Formatting a disk means configuring the disk with a file system so that Windows can store information on the disk. Hard disks in new computers running Windows are already formatted. If you purchase an additional hard disk to expand the storage of your computer, you might need to format it. Track (The circular rings) Sector (Each Track has fixed # of Sectors) Block Cluster Introduction to Computer

38 Computer case A computer case (also known as a "computer chassis or simply "case") is the enclosure that contains most of the components of a computer (usually excluding the display, keyboard and mouse). A computer case is sometimes incorrectly referred to a CPU referring to a component housed within the case. Introduction to Computer

39 Video Controllers Video card (also called a video adapter, display card, graphics card, graphics board, display adapter or graphics adapter) is an expansion card, which generates a feed of output images to a display. Introduction to Computer

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